BIOL 1408 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

BIOL 1408 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE - BIOL 1408 FINAL EXAM...

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BIOL 1408 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE 1. What is the tertiary structure of proteins? The quaternary structure of proteins? What level of protein structure is characteristic of some, but not all proteins? 2. In an experimental procedure, what is manipulated by the investigator to determine whether it influences the phenomenon of interest? Why is it important that an experiment include a control group? 3. What is the atomic number of an atom? How can the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus be determined from its atomic number? What is a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical procedures? 4. What are isotopes? How does one isotope of carbon differ from another isotope of carbon? 5. List the properties or properties associated with living things. How do living systems differ from nonliving systems? List some cases where living systems must perform all these functions, while nonliving systems may perform some, but not all of the same functions. 6. List the levels of biological organization from smallest to largest. 7. Darwin observed flowers on a Galapagos island with very long nectar tubes. What hypothesis did he predict about a moth proboscis on that island?
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8. What is a buffer? Why is water not a good buffer? What pH is human blood? 9. Identify the monomers of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids. Which contain sulfur? Which contain phosphate? Which contain only carbon, oxygen and hydrogen? 10. Why do two atoms that have very large differences in electronegativity form ionic bonds? 11. What type of bond holds one water molecule to another water molecule? 12. State the cell theory. 13. What is a decomposer? A heterotroph? An autotroph? A parasite? 14. If you drop a rubber ball, it doesn’t bounce back to the height you dropped it from. How is this related to the second law of thermodynamics? For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?
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15. Describe the route a newly synthesized protein takes from ribosome to fusion with the plasma membrane. 16. What are plant cell walls made from? Bacterial cell walls?
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