Biological Molecules 2 - Chemistry of Life Part 2...

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1 Chemistry of Life - Part 2 Biological Molecules 2 Of the 92 naturally occurring elements, 16 are known to be important constituents of living systems. The important elements are C, H, O, N, P, S , K, Ca, Na, Cl, Mg, Fe, Cu, I, Mo, Zn By dry mass: O - 63%, C-20%, H-10%, N-2.5% Ca-2.5% P- 1.1% C+H+O+N = 96% Cl, Fe, S, K, Na < .2% Mg, Cu, I, Mo, Zn < .1%
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3 All important biological molecules contain carbon All molecules that contain carbon are called organic (except for CO 2 ). All other molecules are _________. Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds. This allows carbon to form molecules with many different shapes. 4 Most biological molecules have a core made of carbon and hydrogen. Molecules differ in structure and function, in part, because of different functional groups .
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5 The major classes of biological molecules that are important for all living things are carbohydrates , lipids , proteins , and nucleic acids . Large biological molecules are called macromolecules . 6 Macromolecules are built by combining smaller building blocks into polymers. Polysaccharides (large carbohydrates) are polymers of monosaccharides. Fats are built from fatty acids and glycerol.
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7 Proteins are polypeptides - polymers of amino acids. Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. 8 Carbohydrates - compounds made of C, H, and O in a ratio of _________ examples: all sugars, starches, cellulose and chitin Carbohydrates are used for energy storage and structures . Carbohydrates have a caloric value of 4.1 kilocalories/gram. An aside on calories: A c alorie is the amount of heat required to raise 1 g of water 1 ° C. A kilocalorie is the amount of heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 ° C or 1 gram of water 1000 ° C. A C alorie is a dietary unit of energy equal to a kiloc alorie. One gram of sugar has 4.1 Calories and 4.1 kilocalories.
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9 6-carbon sugars The simplest class of carbohydrates are monosaccharides - simple sugars - All have 3 to 6 carbons Glyceraldehyde Ribose 10 Simple sugars exist in different forms and can be drawn in different ways. Glucose
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11 The six carbon sugars all have the same chemical formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 They differ in the placement of functional groups C=O and -OH Isomers have the same chemical formula. Stereoisomers differ in the arrangement of a functional group at a single carbon. 12 Monosaccharides are the building blocks of more complex carbohydrates ______________ are a combination of two monosaccharides.
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13 Disaccharides are formed by dehydration synthesis or a __________ ____________. 14 Many of the larger biological molecules are built by combining smaller molecules (building blocks) through dehydration synthesis reactions and the same molecules can be broken apart into their component building blocks by ___________ reactions.
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15 Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides. Polymers are long chain molecules with repeating subunits. Starches are polymers of glucose.
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