Chp. 1-4 Outline

Chp 1-4 Outline - Week 1 Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1 Exploring Life Biology the scientific study of life Hierarchy of Biological Organization 1

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Week 1: Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1: Exploring Life Biology : the scientific study of life Hierarchy of Biological Organization: 1. Biosphere 2. Ecosystem 3. Communities 4. Populations 5. Organisms 6. Organs and organ systems 7. Tissues 8. Cells 9. Organelles 10. Molecules The Study of Biology: Reductionism: reducing complex systems into simpler components that are more manageable to study. Systems Biology : an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems, allows biologist to predict how a change in one or variables will impact other components. Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic cells A eukaryotic cell is subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane- enclosed organelles, and contains a membrane-enclosed nucleus. (Organisms that have eukaryotic cells include: plants, fungi, and animals.) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-enclosed organelles and a membrane enclosed nucleus. (All bacteria are composed of prokaryotic cells.) In prokaryotic cells, DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane-bounded nucleus. Negative & Positive Feedback Loops:
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Negative feedback loops are the most common form of regulation, it consists of a process which seeks to oppose a change or fluctuation and thereby seeks to maintain homeostasis. In contrast, positive feedback loops consist of a control mechanism in which a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change, meaning that the change continues in the same direction and defers further from homeostasis. Domains : There are three domains, bacteria, archaea and, eukarya. 1.Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species ( D o Kings P lay C hess O n F ine G rain S and) Darwin, Survival of the Fittest: Descent with modification. Natural selection as a mechanism of evolutionary adaptation. Natural selection is the evolutionary process that occurs when a population’s heritable variations are exposed to environmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some individuals in a population more than others. Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Matter : anything that takes up space and has mass Element : a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions. Compound : a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio. Trace elements : Elements required by an organism in only minute amounts. Atom: Is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element. Neutrons, protons, and electrons are subatomic particles, with neutral, positive, and
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course BILD BILD 1 taught by Professor Bever during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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Chp 1-4 Outline - Week 1 Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1 Exploring Life Biology the scientific study of life Hierarchy of Biological Organization 1

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