Week_2-_Ch - Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of...

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Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules C Polymers Long chains of a single subunit (the monomer) attached repeatedly usually by a covalent bond o Formation of polymers: occurs through a condensation aka dehydration reaction (removal of H 2 0) this requires energy o Breakdown of polymers: occurs through a hydrolysis reaction (addition of H 2 0) this releases energy o Although biological polymers are constructed from only 40 to 50 monomers, there is HUGE diversity in the products because the arrangement of the polymers can differ greatly H Carbohydrates = sugars Monosaccharide: (CH 2 O) n this is the monomer of di/polysaccharides o Sugars can be classified as: o aldoses/ketoses: depending on the location of the carbonyl groups o trioses/pentoses/hexoses: depending on the number of carbon atoms o Glycosidic bonds link monomers together it is a covalent bond between 2 monosaccharides o Polysaccharides: o Store Energy Starch: energy storage in plants; polymer of -glucose; 1-4 linkages Glycogen: energy storage in animals o Provide structural support Cellulose: major component of plant cell walls; polymer of β-glucose; 1-4 linkages Chitin: structural polysaccharide in exoskeletons of arthropods o vs. β conformation: = hydroxyl group on carbon 1 points down β = hydroxyl group on carbon 1 points up Humans cannot digest starch because we do not have enzymes to hydrolyze β linkages! H Lipids Fats/triacylglycerols : Glycerol + 3 fatty acids o Fatty acids: carboxyl group attached to long hydrocarbon chain (16-18 carbons) Saturated: no double bonds; these types of fats are able to pack together tightly Unsaturated: fatty acid chain contains at least one double bond, which creates kinks in the chain, and thus these fats cannot pack as tightly o Energy storage o Phospholipids o Hydrophilic head group + 2 hydrophobic fatty acid tails o Amphipathic the head is polar and the tails are non-polar; this causes self-assembly into bilayers o Make up the lipid bilayers in cells (heads make up the outside of the bilayer because they are polar, tails make up the inside because they are non-polar) o Steroids : 4 fused carbon rings o Cholesterol/sex hormones C Proteins:
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Monomer: amino acid o Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds into polypeptides; proteins consist of 1 or more polypeptides o Amino Acids (see figure 5.17 on pg. 79) o Structure: carbon attached to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen, and an R group; the R group is the only part that differs between the 20 amino acids
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Week_2-_Ch - Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of...

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