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mama assignment .doc - ASSIGNMENT:HISTORY OF DATA MINING:...

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ASSIGNMENT:-HISTORY OF DATA MINING:As computer storage capacities increased during the 1980s, many companies began to store moretransactional data. The resulting record collections, often called data warehouses, were too large to beanalyzed with traditional statistical approaches. Several computer science conferences and workshopswere held to consider how recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence (AI)—such as discoveriesfrom expert systems, genetic algorithms, machine learning, and neural networks—could be adapted forknowledge discovery (the preferred term in the computer science community). In the 1990s, the term"Data Mining" was introduced, but data mining is the evolution of a sector with an extensive history.The process led in 1995 to the First International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and DataMining, held in Montreal, and the launch in 1997 of the journal Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery.This was also the period when many early data-mining companies were formed and products wereintroduced.One of the earliest successful applications of data mining, perhaps second only to marketing research,was credit-card-fraud detection. By studying a consumer’s purchasing behaviour, a typical pattern usuallybecomes apparent; purchases made outside this pattern can then be flagged for later investigation or todeny a transaction. However, the wide variety of normal behaviours makes this challenging; no singledistinction between normal and fraudulent behaviour works for everyone or all the time. Everyindividual is likely to make some purchases that differ from the types he has made before, so relying onwhat is normal for a single individual is likely to give too many false alarms. One approach to improvingreliability is first to group individuals that have similar purchasing patterns, since group models are lesssensitive to minor anomalies. For example, a “frequent business travelers” group will likely have apattern that includes unprecedented purchases in diverse locations, but members of this group might beflagged for other transactions, such as catalog purchases, that do not fit that group’s profile.In the 1990s, the term "Data Mining" was introduced, but data mining is the evolution of a sector withan extensive history.Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science and statistics with an overall goal toextract information (with intelligent methods) from a data set and transform the information into acomprehensible structure for further use. Early techniques of identifying patterns in data include Bayestheorem (1700s), and the evolution of regression(1800s). The generation and growing power ofcomputer science have boosted data collection, storage, and manipulation as data sets have broad insize and complexity level. Explicit hands-on data investigation has progressively been improved withindirect, automatic data processing, and other computer science discoveries such as neural networks,clustering, genetic algorithms (1950s), decision trees(1960s), and supporting vector machines (1990s).

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