Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Catabolic...

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Chapter 9 – Cellular Respiration Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels 1. Catabolic pathway – metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds. 2. Catabolism – linked to work by a chemical drive shaft—ATP (ADP + Pi). 3. Fermentation – a catobolic process; a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oygen. 4. Cellular Respiration – the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in whichoxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel; in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria house most of the metabolic equipment for cellular respiration. 5. Example of mechanism similar to respiration – combustion of gasoline in an automobile—the energy released pushes the pistons. 6. Glucose – fuel that cells most often use; breakdown of glucose is exergonic. 7. Redox Process of Glucose – glucose is oxidized, oxygen is reduced; respiration liberates stored energy from glucose and makes it available for ATP synthesis. 8. OIL RIG – oxidation is loss of electrons (reducing agent), reduction is gain (oxidizing agent). The more electronegative an atom, the more it’s an oxidizing agent. 9. NAD+ – (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) a coenzyme / electron acceptor that functions as an oxidizing agent during cellular respiration; it is one of the moste versatile electron acceptor in cellular respiration and functions in several of he redox seps during the breakdown of sugar. 10. NADH – by receiving two negatively charged electrons but only one positively charged proton NAD+ has its charge neutralized when it is reduced to NADH. 11. Cellular respiration – brings hydrogen and oxygen together to form water, but the hyrdrogen that reacts with oxygen is derived from organic molecules rather than H2. Cellular respiration also uses the electron transport chaing. 12. Electron transport chain – a sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP; respiration uses this to break the fall of electrons to oxygen into several energy-releasing steps instead of one explosive reaction. The “top” is the higher-energy of the chain and the “bottom” is lower-energy. 13. Summary: during cellular respiration, most electrons travel the following “downhill” route: food
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course BILD BILD 1 taught by Professor Bever during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Catabolic...

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