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The Cardiovascular System.docx - The Cardiovascular System...

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The Cardiovascular SystemLearning Outcomesthe organisation of the mediastinum and the pericardiumthe orientation of the heartthe external & internal anatomy of the heartthe vasculature of the heart & the cardiac conduction systemOverview of the Mediastinum & PericardiumStructural Subdivisions of the ThoraxThree major spacesMediastinumoLocated in between the pleural cavitiesoExtends from the superior thoracic aperture to the inferiorthoracis appetuare which is dominated by the diaphramgoAlso extends from the sternum and the coastal cartiliages to thebodies of the bertebrae posterioslyoHeart, pericardium (sac containing heart), great vessels, aorta,esophagus, trachea +oAlso forms a passage point for the oesophagus, thoracic ductand some nervesoCan be divided into subregions Find the connectionbetween the manubrium and the body of thesternum (sternal angle/angle of louis):Superior mediastinum(above the angle ofLouis)From the superior thoracic inlet to thetransverse plane through the angle ofLouis and IV discs of T4, T5.Inferior mediastinum(further subdivided)AnterioroIn dark greenMiddleoIn blueoContains the heart!!!Contains the pericardiumPosterioroIn light greenPulmonary cavities (Left and Right)oLungs, arteries, veins and bronchiMiddle Pericardium
The middle mediastinum is located in the centre of the thoracic cavityThe heart lies to the left of the midlineCoronal view of the thorax. Superiorly you see the tracheae, diaphragm is posteriorlyContains Pericardium and its contentsHeart wrapped in yellow sac (pericardium) with other major rootsRoots of Major Blood VesselsoAscending aortaoSuperior Vena Cava (SVC)oPulmonary trunkoInferior Vena Cava (IVC)oPulmonary veinsPhrenic nerve and other pericardiacophrenic vesselsHeart Development- not really examinedAs the heart develops, it pushes against the serous pericardium which has two layersoVisceral pericardium wrapping around the heart (forms the outer walls of theheart- the apicardium)oParietal layer becomes continuous with the visceral layer at the roots of themajor blood layers that ‘hugs’ the heartThe parietal and visceral layer become continuous at the roots of the major bloodvessels
PericardiumSerous (delicate) pericardium (parietal/visceral (or epicardium))Parietal layer lines inside of fibrous pericardiumParietal layer is continuous with the visceral layer at the root of the blood vesselsVisceral layer directly covers outer surface of the heartThe pericardial cavity is between the 2 serous layers & contains <50mL of fluidoMeets at the roots of the blood vessels around the aorta and the inferiorvena cavaTransverse pericardial sinusoSeparates the organs from the veinsOblique pericardial sinus formed via the reflection onto the pulmonary veins of theheartSinuses useful for heart surergyWhen you look at the heart you should be able to see the two reflections (sinuses)Fibrous (tough) pericardiumSac of fibrous connective tissue that envelopes the heartAttaches to the adventitia of great vessels + central tendon ofdiaphragm +posterior surface of sternum via sternopericardialligamentsMajor function is to to hold the heart in place and limit theextension of the heart when the heart is pumping bloodHas the ability to very slowly stretch when the fluid isaccumulated within the pericardial cavityo

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right ventricle, left ventricle, right atrium

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