Chapter 5a - CHAPTER 5 METABOLISM • Cells must accomplish...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 5 METABOLISM • Cells must accomplish two fundamental tasks to grow – Synthesize new components • Biosynthesis – Harvest energy • The sum total of chemical reactions of biosynthesis and energy-harvesting is termed metabolism • Metabolism – Orderly, enzyme-mediated reactions – Step-by-step or cyclic • Catabolism – hydrolytic, exergonic – ex. aerobic respiration – Provide building blocks and energy for anabolism • Anabolism – dehydration synthesis, endergonic – ex. carbohydrate synthesis • Catabolic reactions releases energy. • Some is trapped in ATP. • Provides energy for anabolic reactions. • Collision Theory • Activation energy • Reaction rate • Factors influencing reaction rate – Temperature – Concentration – Enzymes – biological catalysts • Characteristics of enzymes – do not make reactions happen that could not happen on their own – not permanently altered or used up – substrate-specific – Function is based on structure • Some enzymes are all protein • Some are holoenzymes – Apoenzyme (inactive protein) and cofactor (organics or metal ions) Unconventional Enzymes • Ribozymes – Novel type of RNA • Extremozymes – Have molecular applications Mechanism of Enzymatic Action Factors influencing enzyme activity • temperature • pH • substrate concentration • inhibitors – competitive inhibitors – allosteric (non competitive) inhibitors • feedback inhibition Factors that influence enzyme activity...
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Chapter 5a - CHAPTER 5 METABOLISM • Cells must accomplish...

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