soc review 2 - Instinct: an inherited behavioral...

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Instinct: an inherited behavioral disposition in a living organism. They are not learned but are patterned responses to external stimuli Feral Children: very rare. The result of extreme neglect, social confinement, and extreme abuse. They can be profoundly mentally impaired. Environmental Theories of Behavior: Dominated social sciences in the 1930’s (Tabula Rasa, human nature is plastic) Tabula Rasa: pure environmental model which assumes that human beings are born as blank slates Nature Vs. Nurture: Heredity: male sperm contain 23 chromosomes, as does the female ovum, which combine to form 23 pairs, with instructions on each pair. The instructions have DNA embedded in genes. Genotype: the sum total of genetic instructions an organism inherits from parents Phenotype: the visible outcome of gene-environment interplay- height, weight, skin hair. Behavioral Genetics: was born in the 1960’s, blood relatives are more alike than two unrelated people. Family members not only share genetic information but also similar circumstances. Identical twins: If a behavioral trait is genetically inherited, the presences of it in one twin ought to predict the presence of it in the other twin. Sociobiology: was born in the 1960’s, Walter Grove said that crimes can be distinguished by gender and age???? Rates of concordance: likeliness of the same behavioral genetics is measured bye rates of concordance and the correlation coefficient (Rxy) Identical twin separation studies: the separation of identical twins permits the isolation of environmental and genetic effects Monozygotic: identical twins Dyzygotic: fraternal twins Adoption Studies: Marc Schuckit discovered that adoptees with an alcoholic biological parent had a 50 percent chance of becoming an alcoholic. This risk was almost twice as high if an adopted parent was an alcoholic. Marc Schuckit: Professor of psychiatry at UCSD on heritability of alcoholism
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Human growth revolution: interplay between genes and social environment is evident here… people keep getting bigger. National Center on Health Statistics: Where the data on measurements of people are recorded and kept Height gains: over the years, everyone is getting bigger and taller Obesity epidemic: children are becoming bigger, obesity from 1991-2004 has increased dramatically all over the US, and the trend is still growing. Body Mass Index: clinically obese people have a BMI of 30+ Environmental Suppressors: genetic changes cannot this quickly; the answer to why the changes spread so fast lies in the potent capacity of environmental factors to modify genetic potential Lack of nutrition, poor sanitation, and disease all suppressed human growth patterns. Life Expectancy Gains: The 20 th century experienced huge gains in life expectancy Hormones: chemical messengers that regulate organs and body functions Sex hormones- testosterone and estrogen Anabolic steroid use boost production of testosterone and increase cellular tissue Heavy users manifest unpredictable mood swings, fits of temper, violent
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soc review 2 - Instinct: an inherited behavioral...

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