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Unformatted text preview: Intro to Psych Sara Broaders Fall 07 Chapter 1 notes Terms Psychological Science the study of mind, brain, and behavior. An empirical discipline. Mind mental activity ie thoughts and feelings Brian active nerve cells and associated chemical rxns that stimulate the body and mind Behavior describes a variety of actions, subtle and complex, that occurs in all organism. Evolutionary Theory In psychological science, a theory that emphasizes the inherited adaptive value of behavior and mental activity throughout the entire history of a species. Natural Selection Darwins theory that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environment have a selective advantage over those who do not. Adaptations - In evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future generations. Culture The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next. Nature-Nurture debate The arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture. Mind-Body Problem A fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind and body are separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical brain. Dualism The philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical body. 4 Themes in Psychology 1 Research on mind, brain, and behavior has accumulated over time to produce the principles of psychological science. Science builds on the foundation of shared knowledge. 2 A new biological revolution of profound significance is in progress at the dawn of the twenty-first century, bringing with it a deeper understanding of the human mind and behavior. Brain chemistry the brain works through the actions of chemicals known as neurotransmitters, which communicate messages between nerve cells. Genetics and the Human Genome Scientist have unlocked the human genome and now can map it out and are discovering links between genetics and behavior. Watching the Working Brian Technology has allowed scientist to watch the brain in action. We can see patterns and we know that there are specific parts of the brain for specific functions. (localization) 3 The mind has been shaped by evolution and can adapt. See evolutionary theory, natural selection, and adaptation. Solving adaptive problems the body contains specialized mechanisms that have evolved to solve problems that required adaptations. The brain has evolved special circuits and structures that solve adaptive problems....
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSYCH 110 taught by Professor Finkel during the Fall '08 term at Northwestern.
- Fall '08