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Lab Problems - Lab Problems This section contains...

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This section contains end-of-the-chapter problems that involve data obtained from various simple laboratory experiments. These lab problems for any chapter can be obtained by click- ing on the desired chapter number below. The problem statements involve the objective of the experiment, the equipment used, the experimental procedure involved, and a discussion of the calculations necessary to obtain the desired results. The goal of each problem is to present the final results in graphical form. The raw data for each problem can be obtained by clicking on the prompt in the data section of the prob- lem statement. These data are then given as a page in the EXCEL program so that the nec- essary calculations and data plotting can be done easily on the computer. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 5 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 L-1 L ab Problems Lab Problems for Chapter 1 1.90 Fluid Characterization by Use of a Stormer Viscometer Objective: As discussed in Section 1.6, some fluids can be classified as Newtonian flu- ids; others are non-Newtonian. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the shearing stress versus rate of strain characteristics of various liquids and, thus, to classify them as Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluids. Equipment: Stormer viscometer containing a stationary outer cylinder and a rotating, concentric inner cylinder (see Fig. P1.90 ); stop watch; drive weights for the viscometer; three different liquids (silicone oil, Latex paint, and corn syrup). F I G U R E P 1 . 9 0 Rotating inner cylinder Drive weight Outer cylinder Fluid ω W
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Experimental Procedure: Fill the gap between the inner and outer cylinders with one of the three fluids to be tested. Select an appropriate drive weight (of mass m) and attach it to the end of the cord that wraps around the drum to which the inner cylinder is fastened. Release the brake mechanism to allow the inner cylinder to start to rotate. (The outer cylinder remains stationary.) After the cylinder has reached its steady-state angular velocity, measure the amount of time, t , that it takes the inner cylinder to rotate N revolutions. Repeat the measurements us- ing various drive weights. Repeat the entire procedure for the other fluids to be tested. Calculations: For each of the three fluids tested, convert the mass, m , of the drive weight to its weight, where g is the acceleration of gravity. Also determine the angular ve- locity of the inner cylinder, Graph: For each fluid tested, plot the drive weight, W , as ordinates and angular velocity, as abscissas. Draw a best fit curve through the data. Results: Note that for the flow geometry of this experiment, the weight, W , is propor- tional to the shearing stress, on the inner cylinder. This is true because with constant an- gular velocity, the torque produced by the viscous shear stress on the cylinder is equal to the torque produced by the weight (weight times the appropriate moment arm). Also, the angu- lar velocity, is proportional to the rate of strain, This is true because the velocity
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