Chapter 5 notes

Chapter 5 notes - Amber Owens Biology Chapter 5 Notes The...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Amber Owens Biology Chapter 5 Notes 8/28/07 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules 1. The Molecules of Life 1. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids are the four main classes of large biological molecules 2. Many of these are molecularly HUGE. A protein may consist of thousands of covalently connected atoms. Biologists term these macromolecules. 3. The architecture of a macromolecule helps explain how that molecule works. 4. Form and function are inseparable 2. Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The synthesis and breakdown of polymers 1.1.A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds. 1.1.1. Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids are polymers 1.2. The repeating units that serve as the building blocks of polymers are small molecules called monomers . 1.3. Monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule; this is called a condensation reaction or a dehydration reaction (the molecule lost is water) 1.3.1. The bond is formed by both monomers. One provides a hydroxyl group (-OH) and the other provides a hydrogen (-H) to form the water molecule. 1.3.2. The cell must expend energy to carry out dehydration reactions and the process can only occur with the help of enzymes (specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions). Amber Owens Biology Chapter 5 Notes 8/28/07 1.4. Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis . This is the reverse of the dehydration reaction. 1.4.1. Bonds between monomers are broken by the addition of water molecules. A Hydrogen attaches to one monomer and a hydroxyl group attaches to the adjacent monomer. 2. The Diversity of Polymers 2.1.Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules. The inherent differences in siblings reflect variations in polymers. 2.2. These molecules are constructed from 40 to 50 common monomers. The key to variety is arrangement—variation in the linear sequence that the units follow. 2.2.1. Proteins are built from 20 kinds of amino acids but are typically hundreds of amino acids long. 2.3. Small molecules common to all organisms are ordered into unique macromolecules. 3. Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material 1. Sugars 1.1.Carbohydrates include both sugars and the polymers of sugars. The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides, or single sugars (simple sugars). 1.1.1. Disaccharides are double sugars, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a condensation reaction. 1.2. Monosaccharides generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of CH 2 O. 1.2.1. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Amber Owens Biology Chapter 5 Notes 8/28/07 1.3. The molecule has a carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups. Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, a sugar is either an aldose or a ketose....
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 12

Chapter 5 notes - Amber Owens Biology Chapter 5 Notes The...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online