Chapter 13a - Viruses, Viroids and Prions Virus (Latin word...

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Unformatted text preview: Viruses, Viroids and Prions Virus (Latin word for poison) DNA or RNA not both Protein coat Infect only specific types of cells host range Determined by specific host attachment sites and cellular factors Multiply inside host cell using host cells machinery Cause synthesis of specialized structures to transfer viral particles to other cells Virion is a complete, fully developed, infectious viral particle Contains nucleic acid and a protein coat that protects and helps in transmission between hosts Prions are infectious proteins Viruses Viral Classification 3 primary means of classification Nucleic acid DNA or RNA (never both) can be either single-stranded or double-stranded can be linear or circular, some are even segmented Morphology of protein coat (capsid) protein subunits called capsomeres Some have envelope Some envelopes have spikes Replication strategy Helical Viruses Polyhedral Viruses Complex Viruses An infected host should produce antibodies to inactivate the virus Some escape antibodies because regions of the genes that code for the viruses surface proteins are susceptible to mutations can code for different strains of the virus that have altered surface proteins Viral Taxonomy Family names end in viridae Classified by nucleic acid type, replication strategy and morphology Genus names end in -virus Viral species A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche (host) Common names are used for species Subspecies are designated by a number Viral Taxonomy Herpesviridae family Herpesvirus genus Human herpes virus 1, HHV 2, HHV 3 - species Retroviridae Lentivirus Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1, HIV 2 Isolation and Cultivation of Viruses Viruses must be grown in living cells Bacteriophages form plaques on a lawn of bacteria Animal viruses may be grown in living animals or in embryonated eggs...
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2008 for the course BIOLOGY 380 taught by Professor Littlejohn during the Spring '06 term at University Of Southern Mississippi .

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Chapter 13a - Viruses, Viroids and Prions Virus (Latin word...

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