Chapter 6_Environmental Policy

Chapter 6_Environmental Policy - Chapter 6: Environmental...

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Acid Deposition: Also called Acid Rain, is the result of sulfur and nitrogen oxide being emitted into the air and traveling to a different part of the country and land, changing the acidity of the water or land on which the chemicals fall. Acid rain can have serious environmental and health impacts including: damaging buildings, statues, and metals; contaminating fish in lakes; damaging flora; making trees more susceptible to other kinds of stresses (weather, disease); inhibiting the ability of soil to absorb metals; and contributing to respiratory problems in humans. Administrative Strategy: Auction of Pollution Rights: A type of Tradable Permit System. After the amount of emissions of a given pollutant for a given area is set, the total amount is divided into units. An auction is then held for the units. Environmental organizations could compete in the auction for the pollution rights, and the result would be a cleaner environment than originally planned. Auctioning would create the missing market for a clean environment. Brownfields: Abandoned industrial sites, many of them in urban areas. There are an estimated 450,000 such sites across America. The EPA has a program that involves these brownfields; the EPA and communities are exploring ways to reclaim the lands for community purposes. Charge Systems: A polluter is charged per unit of pollution expelled. An example is the effluent or emissions tax in which a tax is levied on a polluter according to the amount of emissions. This internalizes the externality by imposing a tax equal to the cost of cleaning up the environment. Civic Environmentalism: Another way of reducing the mandates problem is to work from the bottom up. This would involve a process, labeled civic environmentalism, what would start with forums at the grass roots, involve industrial, environmental, and community interests, and work up to the federal level. Such forums would work within the framework of federal laws and regulations but have more flexibility. Command-and-Control: Also known as Regulatory Strategy. An agency sets standards for emissions of or exposure to a given pollutant and commands that those standards be met. Within this strategy there are choices involving more or less government (design standards and performance standards). Design Standards: Part of Regulatory Strategy/Command-and-Control. State not only what the standard should be, but also how they will be met. In sulfur dioxide example, a design standard would state specific methods, such as a flue gas scrubber, to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. Ecology: The first of three core values embodied in the environmental movement, as argued by Robert Paehlke. Basically, it says that all things are related to everything else and hurting one part of the environment causes a chain-reaction. Ecorealists:
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PLS 102 taught by Professor Rushefsky during the Fall '07 term at Missouri State University-Springfield.

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Chapter 6_Environmental Policy - Chapter 6: Environmental...

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