Topic 22 (Brain Anatomy)(1)

Topic 22 (Brain Anatomy)(1) - BIOL 255 Topic 22 Part 1...

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10/3/12 1 BIOL 255 Topic 22 Part 1: Anatomy of the Brain Topic 22 Outline Brain Development Support and Protection of the Brain • Cerebrum • Diencephalon • Brainstem • Cerebellum Limbic System Cranial Nerves Human Brain Size Volume: 1200–1500 cc Weight: 1.35–1.4 kg Major Regions of Human Brain • Cerebrum • Diencephalon • Brainstem • Cerebellum Major Parts of Adult Brain (a) Left lateral view Spinal cord Cerebellum Pons Temporal lobe Lateral sulcus Sulcus Gyrus Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Parietal lobe Cerebrum Anterior Central sulcus Posterior Medulla oblongata Temporal lobe Medulla oblongata Mesencephalon Mammillary body Optic tract Pituitary gland Cerebral hemispheres Eye Olfactory bulb Olfactory tract Optic chiasm Optic nerve Frontal lobe Pons Cerebellum Occipital lobe
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10/3/12 2 Midsagittal Section Frontal lobe Hypothalamus Thalamus Interthalamic adhesion Corpus callosum Pons Cerebellum Medulla oblongata Pineal gland Tectum Fourth ventricle Fornix Pituitary gland (hypophysis) Directional Terms to Describe the Brain Rostral — toward the nose (synonymous with anterior) Caudal — toward the tail (synonymous with posterior) Embryonic Development of the Brain By the fifth week of development, the three primary vesicles further develop into five secondary brain vesicles: 1. Telencephalon— eventually forms cerebrum 2. Diencephalon— eventually forms thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus 3. Mesencephalon— only primary vesicle that does not form a new secondary vesicle (midbrain) 4. Metencephalon— eventually forms the pons and cerebellum 5. Myelencephalon— eventually forms medulla oblongata Developing Human Brain (Fifth Week) Developing Human Brain Organization of Neural Tissue Areas in the Brain Gray matter: houses motor neuron and interneuron cell bodies, dendrites, telodendria, unmyelinated axons forms the cortex, which covers the surface of most of the adult brain forms discrete internal clusters called cerebral nuclei White matter: made up of myelinated axons lies deep to the gray matter of the cortex
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10/3/12 3 Support and Protection of the Brain Cranial meninges are connective tissue layers that: Separate soft tissue of the brain from bones of cranium enclose and protect blood vessels that supply the brain contain and circulate cerebrospinal fluid form some of the veins that drain blood from the brain the layers are: dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater Cranial Meninges Arachnoid villus Superior sagittal sinus Skin of scalp Periosteum Bone of skull Duramater Periosteal layer Meningeal layer Arachnoid mater Subarachnoid space Arachnoid trabeculae Pia mater Cerebral cortex White matter Falx cerebri Cranial Dural Septa There are four cranial dural septa that partition separate specific parts of the brain and provide stabilization and support: 1. Falx cerebri— projects into longitudinal fissure and separates left and right cerebral hemispheres 2. Tentorium cerebelli
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