PSY323 - Test 1 Notes - Introduction Men and women...

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Introduction Men and women Similarities perspective (how similar men/women are) Social constructionist explanation – build reality based on past experiences, who we interact with, what we believe Differences Perspective (men/women generally differ) Intellectual differences in different fields (social skills) Emphasize positives of both genders, though those associated with women are undervalued Essentialism explanation – gender is basic stable characteristic, all women share same psychological characteristics that are different from men Sex Stereotypes (socially shared beliefs – certain qualities assigned to ppl based on sex, many based on opposites ) Earlier hierarchical tradition – women similar to men, but less developed Sex – biological/reproductive differences Gender –cultural expectations determined by society, reinforced through gender socialization (family -> school) parents likely to raise kids as they were raised inequality o salary gaps (women earn 77% of men’s salary in US?) o glass ceiling – women can’t get past certain point in job ladder b/c of sex o glass escalator – men encouraged to move up stratification o different occupation dominations based on gender roles, but more people breaking roles o women taking on more masculine roles – converging roles (increasing similarity) Gender Stereotypes – expressions of probability – not everyone resembles stereotypes Dynamic component – stereotypes change along with change in roles for women/men Descriptive – what typical women and men ARE like. Prescriptive – what typical women and men SHOULD BE like. Gender-intensified prescriptions – traits seen as desirable for everyone but ESPECIALLY desirable for certain gender (men SHOULD be athletic, women can be athletic – unathletic man is held lower than emotional man but women can be either) Gender-relaxed prescriptions – traits seen as desirable for everyone but one gender is allowed more leeway for falling short than other (men can be friendly but don’t have to be, women can be friendly – unfriendly man expected more than unfriendly woman) Gender-intensified proscriptions – traits seen as undesirable for everyone but ESPECIALLY undesirable for certain gender (men SHOULDN’T be shy, women can be shy – un-shy man is held higher than shy man but women can be either) Gender-relaxed proscriptions – traits seen as undesirable for everyone but one gender is allowed more leeway for having the quality than other (men can be stubborn, women can be stubborn but not desired – stubborn man liked more than stubborn woman) Components: Personality traits, Roles, Behaviors, Occupations, Physical Appearance (I.e. source of emotional support, manage house, takes care of kids, and decorates houses -> assumed to have emotionality, gentleness, and understanding of others -> heterosexual, feminine occupation /elementary school teacher) counter-stereotypical behavior led to assertions of homosexuality too. Dimensions:
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSY 323 taught by Professor Stuckless during the Winter '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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PSY323 - Test 1 Notes - Introduction Men and women...

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