Study Guide Test _2 - Study Guide 2 Chapters 6-8, 10...

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Study Guide 2 Chapters 6-8, 10 Lecture Describe the main conclusion regarding gender differences across the following areas: o Personality Males are more assertive and aggressive Males have slightly higher self-esteem Females more extraverted Females experience more anxiety Females more trusting Females more nurturing (tender mindedness) o Sexuality Males - promiscuity Female – choosiness Men’s sexuality is based on visuals because their brain looks for “reproductive potential” Women’s sexuality is based on romance because they are looking for a “high investment male” o Cognition/Intelligence No Global IQ difference Male’s are slightly better at mathematics Women are slightly better at verbal abilities Chapter 6 Define and understand the concepts relevant to “learning” (p. 206) o Learning – A relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes as a result of practice or experience o Classical Conditioning – Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response. o Operant Conditioning – Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences (also known as instrumental or Skinnerian conditioning) o Cognitive-Social Learning – Emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior. Define and understand the concepts relevant to “ classical conditioning” (p. 207- 213) o Pavlov’s Dog Experiment o Watson’s Little Albert Experiment o Generalization and Discrimination o Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery o Higher-Order Conditioning
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Define and understand the concepts presented in Pavlov’s (Accidental) Discovery (p. 208-210) o Classical Conditioning – Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response. Here are some specific concepts to know well: * Define and understand the concepts relevant to “Unconditioned Stimulus,” Unconditioned Response,” “Conditioned Stimulus,” and “Conditioned Response” (p. 208) unconditioned stimulus – stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning unconditioned response – unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning conditioned stimulus – previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, now causes a conditioned response conditioned response – learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus. *During acquisition, know how a CS is typically paired with a UCS to establish a strong CR (p.208-210) An originally neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response that it did not previously elicit Describe John B. Watson’s and Rosalie Rayner’s study with Little Albert (p. 210- 211) o every time “Little Albert” was handed a fuzzy animal, the researchers
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSYC 120 taught by Professor Beck during the Spring '08 term at Abilene Christian University.

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Study Guide Test _2 - Study Guide 2 Chapters 6-8, 10...

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