History_028E_Final

History_028E_Final - PART 1 1. haniwa [textbook, p. 141,...

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PART 1 1. haniwa [textbook, p. 141, 142] The Haniwa (1 ) are funerary figures, found in thousands of kofun tombs (3rd-6th century CE) scattered throughout Japan. The Kofun period’s horse-riding warriors wore iron armor, carried swords and other weapons, and used advanced military methods like those of Northeast Asia. Many of them are represented in Haniwa figurines for funerary purposes. The haniwa protects the emperor in his after life for decorative and spiritual reasons. 2. Himiko/Pimiko [textbook, p. 140-141] Himiko 1 was a female ruler of Yamataikoku, an ancient state thought to have been located either in the Yamato region. The Nihonshoki , an old Japanese history book, notes that Himiko was actually Empress Jingū , the mother of Emperor Ojin , but historians disagree. Himiko never married and it is recorded that her younger brother assisted her as a political advisor. 3. Shintō [textbook, p. 141] The indigenous religion of Japan, ‘the way of the spirits’. It emerged from the nature-worship of Japanese folk religions, and this is reflected in ceremonies appealing to the mysterious powers of nature (kami) for benevolent treatment and protection. By the 8th-c, divine origins were ascribed to the imperial family and the Japanese islands. In time these became the basis for State Shintoism and its loyalty and obedience to the Emperor. 4. Prince Shōtoku [textbook, p. 143] Japanese Yamato period ruler. A member of the Soga ruling clan, he was regent to Empress Suiko. Influenced by Chinese culture, he sent four embassies to the Sui court in China. His patronage of Buddhism, including importing Korean monks, and extensive temple building, aided its ascendancy from c.600. 5. Kojiki 1 , Nihongi (Nihonshoki) 1 [textbook, p. 148] The Kojiki and Nihongi relate histories of Japan from the creation of the cosmos to the establishment of the centered stated in the seventh century. Kojiki, which details the age of the gods, can be read as an attempt by the Yamato court to justify its preeminence over other lineages. Nihongi opens with a passage that draws on Chinese yin- yang theory and cosmology. It narrates the history of the Yamato rulers in a straight line of descent from the sun goddess. Both histories exaggerate the antiquity of the early Japanese stat and its control over local political arrangements. 6. Amaterasu [textbook, p. 144; 466, lecture notes] The principal deity in the Shinto religion of Japan. She is both the Sun-goddess who rules all the gods and the mother-goddess who ensures fertility. Once when she shut herself in her cave, the whole world became darkened and no plants could grow. The other gods played music and offered presents to make her return. 7.
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History_028E_Final - PART 1 1. haniwa [textbook, p. 141,...

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