Anth 1120 Rev - 1 Culture The system of meanings about the...

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1. Culture - The system of meanings about the nature of experience that are shared by a people and passed from one generation to another, including the meanings that people give to things, events and activities, and people. 2. Ethnocentrism - The tendency to judge beliefs and behaviours of other cultures from the perspective of one's own culture. - IT IS THE ACT 3. Ethnocentric fallacy - The mistaken notion that the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures can be judged from the perspective of one's own culture. - IT IS THE BELEIF 4. Relativism - attempt to understand the beliefs and behaviours of other cultures in terms of the culture in which they are found- IT IS THE ACT 5. Relativistic fallacy- The idea that it is impossible to make moral judgments about the beliefs and behaviours of members of other cultures.- IT IS THE BELIEF 6. Armchair anthropology- Approach to study of various societies- dominated in late 1800's; collect, study and analyze writings of missionaries, explorers and colonists- they made comparisons and generalizations about the ways of life of various groups. 7. Participant observation- element of fieldwork involves participating in daily tasks and observing interactions 8. Fieldwork- long- term interactions with group of people- involves living with people, observing and contributing to daily chores and task and conducting interviews- historically has been qualitative 9. Ethnographic method - The immersion of researchers in the lives and cultures of people they are trying to understand in order to comprehend the meanings these people ascribe to their experience. 10.Socio-cultural anthropology- approach that retains the British focus on social anth at the same time as it adds the American focus on culture to produce something slightly different from either one. 11.Applied anthropology- specializes in putting anthropological knowledge into practise outside academia, seek to explain diversity to help people understand one another better (i.e. Diff meanings to diff events leads to misunderstanding and conflict) 12.Identity- learned personal and social types of affiliation, including gender, sexuality, race, class, nationalism and ethnicity. 13.Enculturation- the process through which individuals learn identity. Parental socialization, peer influence, mass media, gov't.. 14.Egocentric view of the self - defines each person as a replica of all humanity, as the location of motivations and drives and as capable of acting independently of others.
15.Sociocentric view of the self- context-dependent view, self exists as an entity only within the concrete situations or roles occupied by the person. 16.Gender- culturally constructed ideals of behaviours, dress, occupations, roles and comportment for particular sexes. 17.Third gender-gender given to someone who does not fit within strictly masculine or feminine gender roles 18.Gender hierarchy- people are ranked above one another according to gender 19.Hegemonic masculinity- refers to ideals and norms of masculinity in a society, which are often privileged over others

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