Polisci Essence of Decision Paper

Polisci Essence of Decision Paper - Professor Grogan Intro...

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Professor Grogan Intro to Political Science Using Model III to Explain the Events of September 11 th , 2001 September 11 th 2001, the day that Islamic militants attacked American soil is seen as a monumental and tragic event nationally and internationally. There can be no full explanation of why these events took place, because no one can look into the minds of the terrorists. Therefore, only a semi explanation may exist, and it is best reached by using Allison and Zelikow’s Model III, stated in their book, Essence of Decision . Allison and Zelikow’s other two models are insufficient, because of lack of pertinence to the group of people who participated in the attacks of 9/11. In this paper, the three models will be overviewed so the reader may see why Models I and II will not work, the events of September 11 th will be summarized, and there will be an analysis of 9/11 through Model III’s lenses. Model I Model I is also known as the “Rational Actor Model” or RAM. Allison and Zelikow state, “The attempt to explain international events by recounting the aims and calculations of nations or governments is the trademark of the Rational Actor Model” (13). This Model is most commonly used because the general public believes individuals or governments rationalize their actions by thinking about their options and weighing the pros and cons. For this Model to work, whoever or whatever one is analyzing must be thinking logically. An important characteristic of Model I is its broadness. The RAM explains events as caused by states as a whole. This is the main reason the RAM cannot be used in explaining the events of 9/11. September 11 th was not thought out and
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implemented by the Taliban (the government of Afghanistan during the attacks), rather it was the work of a group of people who were not relatively influenced by the government. The government did not attack America, nor did it reward the attackers. Model II Model II focuses on organizational behaviour. Allison and Zelikow say, “The subjects in Model II explanations are organizations, and their behaviour is explained in terms of organizational purposes and practices common to the members of the organization, not those peculiar to one or another individual” (144). Model II goes more in depth than Model I because they look at smaller groups rather than governments or states. Important things to consider in Model II are a group’s tendencies, as well as commonly held beliefs and values. Model II could be used to explain the events of 9/11, but it seems still too broad to address the issue. While Model II focuses on organizations and behaviours of groups like the followers of Usama Bin Ladin, it is more important to look at the individuals while analyzing this specific event. September 11
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Polisci Essence of Decision Paper - Professor Grogan Intro...

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