glacial_lab - Processes Landforms Glacial and Indicatorsof...

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Unformatted text preview: Processes, Landforms, Glacial and Indicatorsof ClimateChange .CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS. Sharon Laska. Acadia Universitv Kenton E. Strickland. Wright State University-LakeCampus NancyA. VanWagoner. AcadiaUniversity OBJECTIVES A, Understandprocesses mountajn (alpine) of and the landformsand $'aterbodiesit Slaciation B. Understandprocesses continentalglaciation of and the landformsand water bodiesit produces. C. Constructind analyzetopographicprofilesof vallys,and infer ice thicknesses. Slaciated D. Calculate ratesof glacialretreat(ablation)at Mt. Rainit Washington. E. Evaluatethe useofglaciersas global thermometersfor measuringclimatechange. s,roafrrlds-regions permanntsnow cover(Fisure of 12.1). Ciacierscanbe divided inb two zones, accumul.tion and ablation(Figure12.1). snow and ice collect As in the zone of accumulation, they becomecompacted and highly recrystallized under their own weight. The ice massthenbetins to slide and Row dohnslope like a ver)' viscous(thick) fluid.If vou slowly squeeze a small pieceofice in the ja*'s ofa \'is or pajr ofpliers, thenyou can obsene how it floh's. In naturc,glacial ice formed in the zoneofaccumulationflows downiill into the zone ofablation, whcre it mltsor sublimes (undrgos sublimation)fasterthan new ice can form. The snor.ti,?.'is boundarybetweenthe zonesof the accumulation and ablation.The bottom end of the Slacieris thc terminus. It helps to understanda Slacierbv viewing it as a river of ic.TIe "headwater" is the zone ofaccumulation, and the "rivr mouth" is the terminus.Like a (wear away) rocks,transporttheir river glacirse/ode load (tonsof rock debris),and deposittheir load "downstram" (downglacier). The downslopemovement and ertreme weight of glacierscauscthem to abradeand erode rock materialsthat thev encounter. Thev alsopillcftrock matrial b), freezingaround it and fiPping it from bedrock.The rock debris is then incorporatedinto the Slacialice and transportedmany kilometersby the glacier The debris also gives glacial i.e extra abrasi(e power As the heavv rockJilled ice moves over the land, it scrapes surfaces like a giant sheetof sandpaper. MATERIALS Pen.il, eraser, laboratorynotebook,pocketstereo- INTRODUCTION Glaciersare large ice masscs that form on land areas that aie cold enoughand have enouth snowfall to sustainthem. They form whereverthe winter accumulation ofsnow and iccxceeds surnmerabla' the tion (alsocalledwastrg).Ablation is the lossof snow and iceby meltint and bv sllrli,xation gas(direct to changefrom ice to rvatervapot without melting as sho* n on page8r Accumulationcommonlv ocrur. in 2o5 , 1 2OG . L.botdtory'tu.h,. I 1 1 -1 '1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 **r/./ FIGURE12 1 Active molntarn g acranonin a hypolherrcaregron Noie cLiaway view ol glacialice showrngiow linesand dtrection(b ue nes and a(ows). Rockclebrisfalling trom valli') s,ills commonlv a.cunrLrl,ltcs thesuriace mo!ing glacier on oi.r and rr ir.rnsported c1o\!nslope. Ihus, Sl,rcicrs transporthu,tf q&rnliti0s scdiment onl\ r,[rutalsoonth.'rc(. of not 'hon glacier a melts,it appf.rs to relreatup thc v.ll) froDr whi.h it flowed.lhis is called glacial retreat,even though the ice is silnpl)- melthg back raiherth,rnmovingbackup th{rhil1. As melting occurs,depositsof ()ck)' gravel,sand, . i l l . , r , t . 1 . , r , . , u m u l d r e \ h., r l - r r , , . c e \ d - i . , i r Thesc(k'Nsits cdlectileh arr .nll.'d drift. Drift th.rt .rccumulntes djreclh from thc mi'lting jce is unstrati fied (not lavcrcdor sortedbv siri') .nd is calledtill. Ho$e\cr, drift that is transporti'dbv the melt\^ai.r b|'colni'shycrud, sortedby sirc,.lnd is calledstrati- fied drift. l\ind .rlso c.tntransport srnd,silt,;rnd thf (rigur( 1-l1).t{ind clar particlcs fronidrifi dcposit5 transportecl ghci.rl materialc.n fffnr duni \ or 1,)r,!: ($ deposits ind'depositcd, unstratif nc(.umuLriions ied oiclavc! riltas shownin Figure13.2). Iherc arf {(trrrmain kinds ofglncierstriscd on their sizc nnd form. . Cirqueglaciers small, semicircul.r iriangLrlar k) glaciers torm on thesides mountarns. that of . vally glaciers longglaciers ilo\ do$n th.rr \ siream nllrvsin the mountains. . Piedmont glaciers-mergers h!o,)r nrore !al oi ley Bl,r.icrsat thc foot (breakin slope)of a noun 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 :1 :'l :1 1 1 -1 :1 Gtdciol Pro.esses, Ld,'dlon, drd rndica|orsof ctinate chonse . 2O7 r: r: IT r: r: r: I: r: r: r: rr: r: r: r: r: r: rr: :1:y:'"1:f, ]f ""il: . "i"l'"" " t n"'" rr 1 o!'i<aow eros rea'| a-d ',nq 10 or 'Ies r arl1 l1 t-. r: a- h e s h e e t , , . \ , . . r p J , , .. I . . . t - r p p d i .e m , . u n Jl h d l . o \ r r ! . J r t F p u r t i . r , ro J , , . o r t i n e n t . r n L r - t o h ! t i n d , p e r d p n t o f I n . , u n o d r r p h , t e a t u r e .b F n , . . r r h I tt- \nt.,r.t\ i.c.\pel,.o\crngl'lecrtrrc,un trncnt oi Antarctica ) and Grecnland jce sheet (cor, ernrg Creentand) arc modern cxarnples. "mountain glaciation"(Fj8urc t2.i). Ice sheers colcr rargepafts ot continents, e\ienentire coniinents, or which arc then said to bo under rhc influenceof ,,.ontinentalglaciation." MountainGlaciation Mountain glaciation is chafactcrizeclby cirquc gracl c,. \,.11,9.r ich,. nd pi"dn,,nr ). R t . .j,; r - . t , , , ) r L \ e t o p e l m o u r t r , r t l , , J l o n i i \ , , 1 \e . , . n h . i r q u ( . t f r l l h , b F . t - d F r , . , o p ,m , , u n t d i n t t J . r i r i , , n \ u r \ . * d n n r rl h n r c t ) p F \ I F . o n e , d ! . , ! a p ! J d p i c d n _ . r , r glacier! afc so wctl developed th.t only the mgnesr pcaks and ricltcs extend above ihe ice. Mountajn glaciation is also callcd d/ptrd Sr( idrTor,becausc rr 1s the t)pe secn in Europe,s Atps. PART : GLACTAL 1 PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Cirques,r.lley gtaci('rs, and piedmont glacierstend ro nDdrty mourtainous reSionsof cdriinents,whe.e cllmaticcondiiiurs are sufficicntfor ihem io tbrm. Suchregbns.uc sai.l to be under the influenccor E , 2O8 . t obotatorq tacttt figurc 1:.1 sho\ls a region $ ith Dl\unl.rin gl.r.i.il r r r \ , , t , r h . . \ r , 1 , r \ , 4 , . , ! i . / r n t h . . / , . n ! , , t. r , , I nrul.rtion S,rtr.r,/rtu, ihe ele|ation abo\ e \ l,tc! rn.r. is '5 Pernanent sno$ .o\ er A l s o n o t c s c \ ( . . r 1t v p e so f c r e v r s s s( d | | p . r . r . k s ) in Fiturc 12.1. t the upper end of th('gl,r.itr is thc A lr rgi' l,f,Ss., rrll {Cerman fof "mol,ntdin cr.r.k") th,rt separntcs the lloiring ice from thc relati!('i\ inlmobilc fortion of thc snorLfield. Obser!e ihc clifi('rcnce heti{een lrnrsi'./rd .r.irdsst5 (perprndicular k) thc llos direction) and lirrsih,dindl.rer,?ss.s (aligned \\ith ihe d i r e c t i o no f f b w ) . Figurc 12.2shor\'s ihe fesults of mountain glrci.rtion aftcr the glaciers have complrt('ly melted. Notj(o the ( h.rrncteristic Lrndfornrs, \rater bodi{rs, ,rnd \e(rr, f , , ' \ , , , r r ' , , | l \ n i ,n . , d r . t r . r l r f r . , , r l ( . , { , l.1nds summari/cd in threefigur( sl .rre 8Lr.r.rl . frrs0rdl trttlrres in l-igure l2.l . D.l,(,silrrrr,il fcaturesin FiSure11.1 . t!,i[r l,,]drr,s Figure 12.5 in Notc thnt somefeaturcsare identicalin mouniain gl.rcinti(nr nnd contincntalglaciation,bui oihersare uniqLrc one or thc other Studv ihe descfiptionsin kr thcsethreefjturcs and .ompar thcm with ihe i isonls in figlrres12.lnnd 12.2. EROSIONAL FEATURES GLACIATED OF REGIONS Aowi-shapd depression a highhohtdn stope,tormedby a on CONTINENIAL GLACIATION X Sharp, jagged, knlte 6d9e ndg6 betwosn two orques oi gtac ared X pas fomd by th h6adward Mountain eosion ot cirques peak producdby headwao erosron Step-sided, pyramid-shap6d Slepslopor ock clilf at th6 upstop6nd ot a gtaciated valy or U-shap6d,st66p-walled, glac a16dva t6y lormd by lh6 scooring acl on oi a valleyglac 6r Glaoia tbugh ol a tributary glacir, 6vated e abovo man trcugh the Asymmetrcal knoll of snal hill ol b6drock,lomd by gtacal abrasio. onthesmooth stoss sid (sid6fiom whichlhe gacier came)and by p ucking(pryng and pltling by Oacia ice)on the [email protected] sid (down-glac sids) er Pdalll li.ear $.atchs and goov6s in bedock surfaces, Esutting Foch moutonnae Smoothbedrocksurraces causedby gtaciatataston (sanding actionol qlacieBanalogous ending ol wood with sandpap4 to FIGURE 12.3 Erosioml produced rnountarn fealures qtaciation. by and/orcontinenta t ( f I I I I I REGIONS FEATURES GLACIATED OF DEPOSITIONAL Shl ike layr (blanket) ol ti ! eft on the landscape by a recedmg r r r r r r r f R dge oi I ll that iorms at lhe farlhesladvanceor a g aoer Ridgeoi i ll that iorms at lemlnus ofa glacii,beh nd (up-glacei and generalyparallltoth6 tem nal moE neiformed durng a temporaq7 (stand)in recession a wastinggLacief hall ol Fidge of I ll iormed liom mell ng ice and mass wasi ng al ihe srdeof r r f F a F ln or alongthe boundary blw6en Ridge ti I either transil deposiled oi g iwo tnbltaryglacerslhal have me.gsd lom a largervalleyacier 10 pron y hil cal Steamlined , asymmetr in engthwise e common .oipospdo'Ir l: oeal/s'ha5reepslop6 lr.i'g_hpd'aclo. lrom which lh6 cecane, and agenne sopethat ponts down-gacir Bould6ror sma lef iragmentol rock rstinglarfrch ils solae on bedbck ol a difiefenttype Linear{somelimes slruous)depost oleralics lhatextends rbm lhe sourceof the etralics1ovariouspoinlsaong ihe path ot ce advance r r r r r r r ( i F in transporred mellwater a g acir by lrom anddoposlted Sdimenl ffontof {down-siope thelerminlsol the mellng glacer from) an iormed blankel-like deposil oi oulwashilsually on Plaln by braidplain, formed thecoalscnc by ormanybraded outwash srreams havinq theirorginsa onga comnonglacialiermrnus (oulwash Lorq,narowsheel oubrash of braidplainofonebraded slfeam) extends that lar srream, orfloodplain nea.denng oia beyond lerrninus 3 g a.ier lhe oi Sleep-sded mound ol stral lied drfi thal iormed in contactw th X X f ( ( Long, nanoq sinuous r dge ol stratif 6d drifi depos ted by meliwatef streamsflow ng undrglac al lce of in lunnelswilhintheglacial ce Landwardedge of a sho6lne ol a lakeiormed trcm damm ng oi f r h ponding g acia mellwaler a grac mtwat6(or remporary in of ar topograph depessDn c F F Layersol sedmnl rnthe lakebed, dellas,or beachesofaglaclallake Unsiraltied sheelsoi clayeysill and sily c ay transportedbeyondthe marginsol a g acief by wind and/or bra ded slreams t rs compact and ableto essl sgniicant eroson when exposed n stepslopes FIGURE12.4 Depost ofa featuresprodlced as a resut of mountan and/or cont nenlal g aciai or 21O t t o h o r a t o r uT u a t t c WATER BODIES GLACIATED OF REGIONS MOUN?AIN CONTINENTAL Laker. a depseoolormed fromgracialscouino (scrapng, diggng) or smalllak6sin a glacialtrough Lakeio.m6d by natu.aldanming ol a gtaclalkough 1 1 1 1 1 T sn"rr,.*a"o r"t"-*asrurald d6pl*bn in glac'atdnlr, lmed by mellingol an ielatod, detacid bt6k ot ic6 teft bhind by a glaci8l in reftsat(mltjnsback) Narowmarsh, swamp. orveryshalow akein a to.g shattow depssionbelwentwo morames Lakeromd at th6 maryin(dqe) a glacieras s sult oi of accumulatlng meltwarri upslop6 rh 6dg6of th6 taksis the L-I coveredw h waterand havegrassyvgetalion(swamp) shrubs or FIGURE12.5 Waier bod es producedas a resultof moufla n and/or conr nenta qtaciation :1 1 :1 :1 1 :1 1 :1 :1 :1 :1 :1 .1 :r :1 1 C o n t i n e n t aG l a c i a t i o n l I)urjnt the lrlfistocenc' Epoch "1cc or Age" ihai endcd .rbout10,000 voarsago,thick i.c shcctscoverfd most of Canada, la.ge partsof ALaska, the northern and .ontiguous LrnitedStnl('\.Ihese roniinent.rlglaciers produccdn vnriety of clr,lractcristic l.ndforms (ligors12.6, 12.7). Itecogni.,ing and interpr(ting thcselandt,rrm:jis ii Portanl condLr.ting ork suchns retionnlsoil in \\ .rfalyscs, studies suriacc of drain.Sc and w.rter suppl\t .1ndexPl)rationi,r sources $rnd, gri!cl, ancl of minerals. thousands lakes thel,r.cnmb.ian Thc of in Shn,ld .rrca Cinida alsoar( a legac\oi thi,iconti of nentirlglrciation, nr are the {('riile soilsot thc norrhcentr.lUniiedSLrtcs south-centr.rl and Crnnda. Studr Flturet l?.6 and l 2 T rLith th( d{rscript(Jms ligur(,s in 12.:1, t, and 12.5 12 1. In Figurel2 li, i'\amin. thc t|pica1 \tream.obblf nnd i\picalgl.rci.l cobblr. Erplainho\\'rou thrnk tho h\ o dif{ercnt physi.il abrasionprr)cesscs (river;brasionversus gli.Lrl abr.rsn)n) pn. can du.e suchdrif$ent lo('king cobbl$ :1 ;1 ,1 .-l .-l (1 ,-l J I ,-l r-l '--| ,-1 F B E t r t t Gta.ial Ptucesses, Lan.tloms, ofld tfldicatots ol Ctrnate Chorye . 21 1 r r t r r E r r r r r L t L lL k I r*'r,*" F K t- glacialion produces FIGURE 12.6 Conlinenta thesecharacteistic andlorms the at (decrease g acer sizedueto severe begnning icewaslage ol in ablation). Referto the SiffleurRiver Alberta quadrangle(Figure 12.9)for ihesequestions. 2. What is the namegiven to features like Marmot Mountain and ConicalPeak?How do suchfea3. TheboundarvbetwecnImprovementDistricts9 and 10 follorrs a ridge lrom the Sifleur Rivr Valley to Mount Kentigcm.\4tat type of ridge is this and how did it form? 4. Near the northernedgeof the map, what type of vaUei'is locatedabovethe falls west of the Siffleur River and hoh'did it form? 5. What type of lake is at the headwaters the of strean that forms thesefalls? b. i\hat othe"fearurcs produ.edby mountd|Jl glaciationcanyou seeon this map? Referto Figure 12.10, potion of theAnchoraS a (B-2),AlaskaquadranSle, the following guestions. for In the southwestern comer,note the Harvard Arm of PrinceWilliam Sound.The famousEirxo, yrldezoil spill occurredjust souih of this area.(lt did not affe.t Ha ard Arm.) 7. What are the linear features Haflad Glacier on that are indicatedby the brown stippled pattem and how do they form? 8. Notice th crei'asses wiihin a mile ofihe Slacier's ierminus.What specifickind of crevasses they, are and whv do you think they formed only on this part of the glacier? 9. Betweenthe Harvard and Yaleglaciers, notice how the Dora KeenRangeis streamlined and thins to the southwest. How could you usethis information to infer how ice has flowed in regions where glaciersare no longer present? E r, F E F F F F K -. 212 . Laboratoty Tuetoe M sfl ::13$*_ t-. FIGURE 12.7 Continentat gtaciation teavos behind thssecharacteristic tandforms aftr complele wastage ice (compare partiat io wastage Ftgure in 12.6). a. FIGURE r2.8 Notethe differences between stream a cobbte anda gtactat cobbte. Stream cobbles rounded we -rounded navesmooth are to ano surtaces_ clacialcobbles are, angutar or,tacoted havemanyscratch and (A marks. cobbleis a clastbelween a peoble anda boulder size,64-256mm diameter) in ? a 7 r 6 r ? a FIGUFE 12.9rSrflleu Frve,,Aberla 0 A 1/2 I 1 2 kiometers 2fri t l 1 I cotou _,, ,, 1 Contour ntetoa = iOO ft = "tena roon ;u.; I ,18,000 \y -i$'. ,i,.,) ._... I r : 3 3 a i i Gtd.ial Prc..ss.s, Lttidlo & d n Indi.{tors ol Cli'nate Chdnpe . 215 Referto Figure12.11, part of the Peterborough, Ontario quadrangle, the following quesrions. for This arealies north of LakeOntario. 10. Study thc siz-e shapeof the obbn8 hitts.Whar and type of fcatureare they and hou,did thev form? 11. In what directiondid the icc movc over this nra? Explain. 12. What sort ofsediment u,ould you cxpr\ctto find in a drumlin? Would it b well strarificdand well sorted? Explain. 13.Find the rcd hiShway,Route7, rhat crosses the uppcrpart of the map. About I %inchesbclow the number 7, what is the long, narrow featurcthat trendsnorthcast-southwest? Ho\r' did itform? Explain. a - a 3 t - 14. Ihe Antarctic icesheetis thc hrScst moderncon, tincntal glacier lts aredis largerthan the Unired States and Merico combined.lts nraximumthick, nessis.l.26 km (2.65mi), and it probnbl), contains .rbouttho thirds of the frcshh.lteron Earth!Dur, ing pastdroughts in parts of the United Srdtcs, somepcoplehave proposedmining of thc Antarctic icc shtfor fresh$.rtrice.Thcselar8cblocks ot ico ivould be tora by ships to U.S.pon c' s, ed wherethev r'r'ouldmelt and proviciefreshsater Would watcr from such a sourcercquire trcatment or filtering?Explrin. L r L L L L -'i\' \r \ ,\ 'i,,o*'. ,o -./- . t, '.,"\\\ ...,,i";' i \i , /.; p; .L /' rff ?i :l ,:- ,,,..' t\l 5,, 0,,0,",,.iT { ril .\ .'i"' r" T i"' -i ',,, "./ r ,3 .: A - Ctadat Pro(rs., La"dloms, aad Indi.atorc ol Cti'flatp Chaflg( . 217 i 2: PART APPLYING WHAT YOU,VE LEARNED Referto FiSure12.12, portion of the White\^,ater, a Wisconsin quadranSle, Figure 12.13, accomand the panyinSste8rgram, for thesequestions. Qrcstions ,.r 4 20. Note the swampy and rnarshyararunnin8 from thc weslcentral edgeof the map to the northastcrn comer.Describe probableori8in ofthis the fc.ture. (More than one answeris possiblc.) Itefer to Fi$rre 12.1.1, portion of the Mt.llarnrcr, a Washington quadranSle. 21. What kinds ofglac;erspresentlyarc locatedon Mt. Rahier? 22. Is this an oxampleofmountain glaciationor continentalSl.ciation? 23. Lilit the.rosrord/featurcs(from FiSure12.3) that have beencaused glaciersin this regton. by 24. List the dr?iositii),,nl features(from Figure 12.4) c.ru-ed RlacrrsIn lhe Vl. l{ainrcr b) regron 25. Consideringvour ans$,crs, what evidnccis there th.t the glaciersof the Mt. Rainierrcgion once sere more extensive than todnv? -i i : 15. List the featurcs ofSlaciatedregionsfrom Figu.es 12.3and 12.-l that arc presentin this region. 16.Bascdon your answerto Question15,iLhat kind of glaciation(mountainversuscontinental)has shdpedthis landscape? 17. Describe what dircction the ice flowcd ovcr thls region.Cit!'evidoncefor your infercnce. 2 18. What kinds of lakesarc presentin ihis rcgion,and how did thev form? (Referto Figx.e 12.5.) 19.In ihe southeastern cornerof the mnp, th. for.'stedirea probabl),is i{'hat kind of feahrre? l: 1: t: t: F F E F E E F K E E E +1" i b io -]-'i i .L. .l ' i i s p nlr ii' r.tn .. -V lur,"rilnrr* i : I,l:1':,,.,",-- r n r r: fl n r rl t- r r: r: - r r r r r L k L t t o,infrared) o, s,e,eosram ;Jfr[Hllfi."y:1"",1,i:'i 1he r11jJ,i"iii,?iy!1?i"$#i;co 7 l,),, lil \r :\MT RAINIER o 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .1 1 1 1 1 .1 1 a -l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a H r: r" r r Cli.i l'to.ts\ts, I ntdli,nns, dntl Indidtots ol Clifurt. Chnn* . 221 F F r r 1: PART COMPARING 3: TOPOGRAPHIC PROFILES OF GLACIATED VALLEYS Q',?sfnr!5 26. Co|rlpl(,tc ihr tqr()gftrFhic pr(rfik on the lcft-h.nrd s i d r o f l : i g u r ( ,l : . l 5 l o r l u x X - Y , , r . , 1 , i .i r . S r / i l , / f r Rrir'f llr/[,v ltffer tcJFigLlre t.16 on ]rn8( 15:l (T()pogf.lphif Prolrle Constru(]ii( ), if Dcedod. a . \ \ \ . r t r - l r \ L f l r . , 1, \ . , q t , r , r r , ' no r t r I . l , I r , . g r , r p h i cp r o f i l e ? b . l s t h i s . 1n o r n . l p r d i l r i o r , r r i \ f r \ n l h \ ? N h \ l c. Wh\ does theSilfleurlti\ rr \'.rllc\ hi!e this 2 7 . ( ) n t h e r i g h t h n r d \ i d c o f f i g u r e 1 2 . 1 i ,c o r n p l c t e th. n)pogf.phrc proiilc ior linc A-B d.,1,ss Hrl,.ilrf . i r , 1 r ; i i ( r r l { f i e r t o F i g u r c 8 . 1 6( l i ) p o g r . r p h i c l l l , l i l c C ( ! r s i fu c t r o r ) , i i n c c . l c c 1 . a. \\ hat is the \ erti.nl criggef.rt(nr of this k)pot.,rphic frofilcl b . L n b c l i h c t ) , r r to i l h e P r o f i l c ' i h n ti s t h o t o p s u r facc of th. glici('r c. I)|n$ in. dnshfd linf rtherc \1)u think th! r o ( l b o t l , ) m o t t h c \ n l l ( \ i s l ( ) . n t e du n d ( r t h ( ' Hrr\ nrd (ila0(,r 2 8 . B a s f d o l l \ , o u r $ o f k i n Q u e s t i o n s2 6 a n d 2 7 , $ h a t i s t h r m n \ i n r u n r l h i . k n ( ' s so f I l a r \ . r r d ( , , . ( r L r d r linc A-B? F\plnin rour r('.rslnrin8. t: F t1 I i I I ss00 B E F F F - 9000 t t t= t 7s00 I ] tooo I l i t 6500- i I uooo s000 l t t I 1- I l I l I**l oooo l l ["ool 3000 i .25002000 l | t t I I I I I t I I rs00 ] l I tooo I T 500 t t t"tfli.T.",' FlGL.,AE 12.15 Graplrsfor completingiopographc profles oi gtacrared vateys I ! 222 . I.dbohttory i.l'.Lil PART RATES GLACIAL 4: OF (ABLATION} MT. RETREAT AT RAINIER N o l i . c i h . r t i h f f t i r e l w o m . r p so l M l . 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