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Page1of1013COMPANA LABORATORY EXERCISE (REPORT) 2ENDOSKELETONS OF SELECTED VERTEBRATES (CHICKEN SKELETON)Student's Name:CRISTOBAL, Earl Dominic PaladCourse/Year/Section:BIO-MED/120/N01BInstructor's Name:Prof. Christian JordanDate Performed:11/11/21Date Submitted:11/16/21Instructions:(1)Name the different sections of the Chicken Skeleton.(2)Identify, label (using numbers), and describe the specific parts of the corresponding sections.1.Uncinate processExtensions ofbonethat projectcaudallyfrom the vertical segment of eachrib;andthese processes can serve to attachscapulamuscles,and help to strengthentherib cageoverlapping with the rib behind them (Kardong, 1995)2.Neural spineDorsal extensions from the vertebral column3.PrezygapophysisPresent together with postzygapophyses for articulation with the precedingvertebrae and succeeding vertebra, respectively(De Iuliis, G., & Pulerà, 2011);andextends anterodorsally, and has a transversely convex ventralsurface(Brocklehurst, et.al., 2020)4.CapitulumAttached to the centrum or the head of the corresponding vertebral rib (Bhavya,2017)5.Vertebral ribPairsoriginating on the thoracic vertebrae and all but the first, second (andsometimes the seventh) do not reach the sternum, which is their otherattachment point. (Poultry Hub Australia, 2020)
1.HypapophysisLie ventrally to the Odontoid process of the cervical vertebrae (2.Odontoid processAnterior projection at the axis of the cervical vertebrae (Swatland, n.d.)3.Neural spineDorsal projection at the axis of the of the cervical vertebrae (Rashid, et.al., 2020)4.PleurapophysisFused to the tubercles and projects caudally (Harvey, et.al., 1969)1.PygostyleDirected dorsally and lacks transverse processes (Harvey, et.al., 1969)2.Transverse processLateral process derived from the neural arch, and observed as dorsolateralprojections in free caudal and pygostyle vertebrae (Rashid, et.al., 2018)
1.ScapulaNarrow, thin and slightly curved which is unlike the shoulder blade of otheranimals (Poultry Hub Australia, 2020); which lies over the thoracic ribs and itsmedial surface faces the lateral surface of these ribs near their thoracic vertebralarticulation (Harvey, et.al., 1969)2.ClavicleThin, rod-like and slightly bent, located at the upper, or dorsal, end and isconnected with the coracoid bone; wherein the other end is joined to the otherwing and combine to another clavicle, forming the “wish-bone” called furcula,which is capable of acting like a spring and provides a firm base of support for thewing (Poultry Hub Australia, 2020)3.PrecoracoidPart of the coracoid, the strongest bone of the shoulder girdle, where one endcarries a flattened articular surface to fit into the sternum (Poultry Hub Australia,2020)4.InterclavicleLies mid-ventrally within the pectoral apparatus (Hall, 2015)1.Xiphisternal processLocated laterally at the left where it posteriorly joins the sternum (Sabbagh,1991)2.Keel/CarinaVentral ridge in the midline, which increases the area that is available for theattachment of the flight muscles (Sabbagh, 1991)