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Western Civ Final Exam Outline

Western Civ Final Exam Outline - WESTERN CIV FINAL EXAM...

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WESTERN CIV: FINAL EXAM REVIEW RENAISSANCE 15 th century feudalism “chain of being” (top to bottom) losing ground urbanization HUMANISM o Neo-Classicism (interest in Rome, Greece) Led to Neo-Platonism (thought) o PERFECTION OF MAN Why? Original Sin, Black Death Leonardo da Vinci – anatomy – rise of science Castiglione – “The Book of the Courtier” Religious Aspects o Theology, liturgy, Nicene Creed, 7 Sacraments o Transubstantiation: communion prime point of contention (Grace) o Basic mission of the Church – to get people to Heaven o 2 Pillars of Catholicism Bible Tradition THE AGE OF DISCOVERY EXPLORERS o Balboa – Ithsmus of Panama – prevented from getting to the Pacific Ocean o Columbus – Italy for Spain, thought he was in India (re: Indians) Why India? TRADE – spices, silk, tea o De Gama – Portuguese (1497) – had to go through Horn of Africa; had to go SOUTH to go to New World (trade winds) o Magellan – Spain (1502) – “Straight of Magellan” o Portugal lead explorations o Different boats for different reasons – cog, carrack… CONQUISTADORS o Cortes – mercenary for Spain (1519-1522) Sent to Mexico (France and Spain at peace) Mexico v. Aztecs Montezuma thinks Cortes a God 200,000 Aztecs + 200 of Cortes’ men fought Montezuma o win, takes cold, kills Montezuma o Spanish – Catholic – spread religion o Resources fund Hapsburg empire o Pizarro – mercenary Captain Expedition to Peru; Peru v. Incas Knows of Machupiccu Native Americans fight (in a civil war too) – they shoot (musket cannon) Takes king’s gold @ gunpoint, conquered Peru
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Catholic – spread religion; money to fund empire o DeSoto – Florida o Coronada – left Colorado, would have found silver o Ponse de Leon – 3 years searching for Fountain of Youth o John Cabot (1497) – New England, through King Henry VII of England o Francis Drake – “Letter of Marque” – authorization of one country to make another make up for previous losses o Walter Raleigh – Central America (1580) Potato – brings to Ireland 1580 Tobacco – brings to England, makes #$ Why Brazil? TRADE – coffee, rare tropical medicines o Henry Hudson (1610) Looking for NW Passage; instead in NY (Hudson River) south from Lake Champlain o Champlain – Canada (1600) “New France” FURS: beavers – hats – waterproof Indians happy to trade beavers for other goods (axes etc) because of their stone-age technology o *Trade with the New World INSTRUMENTAL MERCANTILISM Economic theory saying that a nations prosperity depended on its supply of gold and silver, and that the total volume of trade is unchangeable government encourages EXPORTS, discourages INPORTS, especially through the use of tariffs and RAW MATERIALS o Closes trade of colonies to mother country “Assiento” – Spanish mercantilism “Colbertisme” – French mercantilism Spanish became very wealthy world power = more gold o
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