anthro1 - Key*=additional ~=vocab Textbook[Ch.1 What is...

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY EXAM #1 Key: *=additional, ~=vocab. Textbook [Ch.1: What is Anthropology?] ~Anthropology: the study of humanity, from its evolutionary origins millions of years ago to its current worldwide diversity ~societies: populations of people living in organized groups w/ social institutions & expectations of behavior *selective borrowing: when members of different cultures meet, shared experiences, & learn from ea. other ~culture: the learned values, beliefs, & rules of conduct share to some extent by the members of a society that govern their behaviors w/ one another ~symbolic culture: the ideas people have themselves, others, & the world, & the ways that people express these ideas ~material culture: the tools people make & use, the clothing & ornaments they wear, the buildings they live, & the household utensils they use ~comparative perspective: an approach in anthro. that uses data about the behaviors & beliefs in many societies to document both cultural universals & cultural diversity ~cultural change: change in peoples’ ways of life overtime through both internal & external forces ~globalization: the rapid transformation of local cultures around the world in response to the economic & other influences of a dominant culture ~holistic perspective: a perspective in anthro. that views culture as an integrated whole no part of which can be completely understood w/o considering the whole *subfields of anthro.: cultural anthro., linguistic anthro., archaeology, biological/physical anthro. ~cultural anthro.: the study of cultural behavior, esp. the comparative study of living & recent human cultures ~ethno logy : aspect of cultural anthro. involved w/ building theories about cultural behaviors & forms ~ethno graphy : aspect of cultural anthro. involved w/ observing & documenting peoples’ ways of life ~indigenous societies: peoples who are now minority groups in state societies but who were formerly independent & have occupied their territories for a long time ~ethnocentrism: the widespread human tendency to perceive the ways of doing things in one’s own culture as normal & natural & that of others as strange, inferior, & possibly even unnatural or inhuman; (i.e. center of the universe) ~cultural relativism: an approach in anthro. that stresses the important of analyzing cultures in their own terms rather than in terms of the culture of the anthropologist; this doesn’t mean, however, that all cultural behaviors must be condoned ~ethical relativism: the belief that all rights & wrongs are relative to time, place, & culture, such that no moral judgment of behavior can be made (all are equal) ~linguistic anthro.: the study of language & comm. & the relationship between language & other aspects of culture & society ~historical linguistics: the study of changes in language & comm. over time & between peoples in contact ~archaeology: the study of past cultures, both historic cultures w/ written records & prehistoric cultures that predate the invention of writing ~biological/physical anthro.: the study of human origins & biological diversity ~paleoanthropology: the study of the fossil record, esp. skeletal remains, to understand the
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