Ch.30 - Ch.30 Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making...

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Ch.30 Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order 1. Introduction In the initial stages of imperialism, Europeans went to conquer new lands, to gain manufactured goods and raw materials not available in Europe, or to win new converts to Christianity. After industrialization, European imperialism changed. Post-industrial imperialists sought raw materials to feed the factories of the home country and new markets for manufactured goods. Religious conversion was not much of a factor. Post-industrial imperialism also resulted in the creation of true empires in Asia and Africa. No civilization was sufficiently powerful to stave off European penetration. By 1850, the new imperialism produced a race to establish empires abroad. 2. The Shift to Land Empires in Asia Introduction In the early stages of imperial advance, the great trading companies sought to avoid involvement in political rivalries in those civilizations brought into the world trade system. Wars and the need to establish political administrations cut into company profits. Inevitably, the local representatives of the great merchant companies were drawn into regional conflicts to protect trading rights or fortified commercial centers, but company directors actively discouraged more direct political intervention. With the slow communications that existed prior to industrialization, however, local commanders did conquer large regions and entire kingdoms in the name of their companies. Thus land empires began even prior to industrialization. Prototype: The Dutch Advance on Java The Dutch at Batavia were initially satisfied to be the vassals of the sultan of Mataram, the kingdom that controlled much of Java's interior. By intervention in succession wars within Mataram in the 1670s, the Dutch received greater control over the region immediately around Batavia. After 1670, repeated interventions in the succession to the throne of Mataram won the Dutch most of Java. The sultans were able to retain only a small kingdom on the south central portion of the island. Java became the core of the Dutch Asian empire. Pivot of World Empire: The Rise of the British Rule in India As with the Dutch in Java, the British only gradually assumed a position of superiority over indigenous rulers in India. The establishment of British control in India had much to do with an imperial rivalry with the French that spanned the globe. It was a contest from which the British emerged as victors and masters of an Asian empire. The British representative of the East India Company was Robert Clive. After winning initial victories in southern India, Clive won a major battle over the ruler of Bengal at Plassey in 1757. Clive had, with the help of Hindu bankers, successfully bought off the chief general and most important allies of his Muslim enemy , Siraj-ud-daula. Clive's victory sealed the British supremacy over the French in India. The Consolidation of British Rule
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Ch.30 - Ch.30 Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making...

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