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anthro4 - Key*=additional ~=vocab CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY...

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY EXAM #4 Key: *=additional, ~=vocab. Textbook [Ch.14: Religion] ~religion: thoughts, actions, and feelings based on beliefs in the existence of spirit beings & supranormal (or superhuman) forces ~religious speech: invocations, prayers, prophecies, songs of praise, & curses that are powerful means of transmitting messages about the world & also creating the world ~animism: belief in the existence of souls ~anim at ism: belief that all things are endowed w/ some spirit form or essence ~polytheism: belief in the existence of numerous deities that have specific attributes, powers, & functions ~monotheistic religions: belief system that holds to the existence of one supreme deity who has powers & knowledge that affect all aspects of life ~ancestral worship: belief in the importance of ancestors as they affect the lives of their survivors, protecting their descendants in return for rituals of honor performed to show them respect ~mana: a force, power, or essence that endows people, animals, other living things, & possibly inanimate objects w/ special qualities or powers ~totemism: belief system in which people believe they are descendants of spirit beings ~secret societies: organizations that control the use of special objects used in religious rituals ~mediums: persons having special gifts to make contact w/ the spirit world, often in a state of trace ~diviners: persons w/ the power to predict the future through messages & omens from the spirit world ~healers: religious practitioners who acquire spirit power to diagnose the spirit cause of illness & effect cures ~shamans: part-time religious practitioners who make contact w/ the spirit world through prayer, ritual, & trace ~priests: full-time religious practitioners who lead a religious organization & officiate at rituals but are not expected to be able to communicate directly w/ the spirit world ~rituals: activities, including religious speech, ceremonies, & behaviors, that are demonstrations of belief ~sacred rituals: activities, places, or objects that are connected to the spirit realm & are imbued w/ power ~rites of renewal (i.e. rites of intensification): rituals performed w/ the goal of renewing the bounty of the earth ~prayer: religious speech/though through which believers transmit messages to spirit beings ~sacrifice: offerings made to spirit beings in order to show gratitude & honor ~puberty rites: rituals performed to mark the passage of an individual from childhood to adulthood; also called initiation rites ~funerary rites: rituals performed to mark a person’s death & passage to the afterworld ~spirit possession: belief that spirits can enter a person’s body & take over their thoughts & actions ~imitative magic: magic that operates on the principle of “like causes like” or that “like imitates art” ~contagious magic: magic that operates on the principle that positive & negative qualities can be transferred through proximity or contact ~cosmology: religious worldview of a people, including beliefs about origin of the world, the pantheon of
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