Ch.29 - Ch.29 The Industrialization of the West, 1760-1914...

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Ch.29 The Industrialization of the West, 1760-1914 1. Intro After 1760, the West underwent a series of dramatic transformations in politics, intellectual development, and industrialization. The latter revolution altered basic social patterns, enhanced Europe's position in the world, and marked the path to be taken by other civilizations. 2. Forces of Change Intro Coming after a period of relative stability, the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution startled contemporary observers. Intellectual Challenge and Population Pressure The Enlightenment was one challenge to regimes that failed to enact reforms. A second source of instability was the dramatic population increase that set in after 1730, a result of improved nutrition and a lower rate of infant mortality. Unlike previous epochs, the population increase of the eighteenth century produced more positive responses. Upper- class families attempted to secure their positions, and the social hierarchy became more rigid. Business families attempted to increase their margins of profit, sometimes by the addition of more technology. At the lowest level, the poor were driven to seek new means of employment. Population growth stimulated a surge in production of textiles and metal products, a process called proto-industrialization. Social patterns changed in response to new economic conditions. The Tide of Revolution, 1789-1830 Intellectual ferment and economic change led to a series of political revolutions. The American Revolution The first political upheaval occurred when the British colonies of North America sought their independence after 1775. Colonists objected to new taxes imposed on the colonies after 1763 and to limitations placed on development of the western frontier. Following the Declaration of Independence of 1776, colonists set up a provisional government and proceeded to fight a war against British forces. After forcing the British to come to terms, the colonists established a new constitutional structure in 1789 based on Enlightenment principles. Crisis in France in 1789 Following the American example, reformers seeking change along Enlightenment lines attacked the inefficiency and autocracy of the French monarchy. Resistance to the government arose in all levels of French society. Cries for reform were met with adamant resistance on the part of the monarchy and the French nobility. In 1789, Louis XVI called a meeting of the French Estates General to consider tax reform, but reformers seized control of the meeting. Reformers issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man as a statement of principle. Shortly thereafter a group of Parisian citizens seized the royal armory at the Bastille. Peasants began to rebel in the countryside in opposition to aristocratic authority. A new constitution established individual rights, assaulted the position of the Church, and granted limited voting rights to the adult male population. The French Revolution: Radical and Authoritarian Phases
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course ? ? taught by Professor ? during the Spring '07 term at Gustavus.

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Ch.29 - Ch.29 The Industrialization of the West, 1760-1914...

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