APreview - AP U.S. Government & Politics Review Packet...

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Constitutional Foundations Republic: a gov’t rooted in the consent of the governed; a representative or indirect democracy Limited Gov’t: limits the framers put on the gov’t to make sure it didn’t get to powerful; the gov’t only does what the people have told it to do Pluralist theory: belief that the gov’t must allow for the expression of minority opinions and that democracy works best when those different voices are allowed to fight it out in the public arenas Majoritarian gov’t: rule by the people (by majority), so 2/3rds vote Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation: no unity, Congress couldn’t assemble, no agreement, economic turmoil, no trade regulations, no judicial system, crumbling economy How to amend the Constitution: formal —Congress can propose an amendment by 2/3rds vote of the Senate and House, informal ---Congress must call a national convention for the purpose of considering an amendment when 2/3rds of the state legislatures “apply” to Congress for such a convention *Thus fare only the first method has been used Separation of Powers: executive, legislative and judicial powers are divided among 3 separate branches of gov’t in a checks and balances system. --- Executive : 1) Appointments [Power to….] 2) convene Congress 3) make treaties 4) vote power 5) preside over the military as commander-in-chief 6) pardoning power ---- Legislative : 1) lay and collect taxes and duties 2) borrow money 3) regulate commerce with foreign nations and interstate 4) establish rules for naturalization & bankruptcy 5) coin money, sets its values, and fix the standard weights and measures 6) punish counterfeiting 7) establish a post office & roads 8) issues patents and copy rights 9) define & punish piracies, felonies on the high seas, & crimes against the law of nations 10) create courts inferior to the Supreme Court 11) declare war 12) raise & support an army & navy, and makes rules for their governance 13) provide for a militia 14) exercise legislative powers & the seats of gov’t & over places purchased to be feral facilities 15) “necessary & proper”--- Judicial : 1) one Supreme Court 2) judges hold office in good behavior 3) original jurisdiction 4) judicial review 5) treason cases Checks and Balances -the 3 branches also have overlapping powers that allow each to check the power of the other two: each branch of gov’t has the same degree of oversight and control over the actions of the other Judicial Review ( Marbury v. Madison ): authority to decide it governmental laws or actions are constitutional, or if their own decisions should be overturned Federalism: power is divided between national and state gov’ts Dual Federalism: the belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of gov’t is the best arrangement Layer Cake Federalism: each layer national, state & local gov’ts have clearly defined powers & responsibilities Marble Cake Federalism:
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course ? ? taught by Professor ? during the Spring '07 term at Gustavus.

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APreview - AP U.S. Government & Politics Review Packet...

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