Sp.II - Ch.18-20 Meaning Uses of the Present Perfect Tense...

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Ch.18-20 Meaning & Uses of the Present Perfect Tense In English, the present perfect tense is quite easily recognized by the presence of the helping verb have . Helping Verb Past Participle have Spoken have Eaten have Received The PP tense tells what one has done as of the present : Have you prepared the lesson (for today)? Have you ever skied? (in your life, up to now) Although the present perfect commonly reports resent actions (the last 24 hours) it may report action begun at any point in the past as long as such action has been perfected (completed) relative to the present : He has finally finished his education (begun 4 years ago). They have just completed the new stadium (begun 7 years ago). Have they are completed the wall (begun over 2,000 years ago). Obviously, the present perfect cannot be used to report remote past events not related to the present: For these the preterite must be used: En 1492 Colón descubrió America. (In 1492 Columbus discovered America.) “Columbus has discovered America!” may have been said in 1492, but not 500 years later! Form Helping Verb + Past Participle. Subject Helping Verb Past Participle Yo He Ar=verb+ad o Has Ir=verb+ido El/Ella/Ud. Ha Er=verb+ido Nosotros Hemos Hablado Ellas/Ellos/Uds . han Comido/vivid o Some verbs which are irregular in other tenses have regular past participles. This also goes for most I, IE, and UE verbs: Infinitive Past Participle dar Dado ser Sido ir Ido oir Oído poder Podido querer Querido Perdir (I) Pedido Pensar (IE) Pensado Contra (UE) contado Statements/ Questions/ Object Pronouns/ Adverbs Yo he preparado la lección.=I have prepared the lesson. Yo he podido preparer la lección.=I have been able to prepare the lesson. Yo no he preparado la lección.=I haven’t prepared the lesson. Yo no he preparado nada.=I haven’t prepared anything. ¿Ha preparado Ud. la lección? = Have you prepared the lesson? ¿No ha preparado ud. la lección?=Haven’t you prepared the lesson?
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