anthro2 - Key*=additional ~=vocab CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY...

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY EXAM #2 Key: *=additional, ~=vocab. Textbook [Ch.6: Making a Living] ~subsistence patterns: methods of obtaining food using available land & resources, available labor & ~food producers: users of a subsistence strategy that transforms & manages the environment in order to obtain food ~pastoralism: a subsistence strategy focusing on raising & caring for large herds of domesticated animals ~horticulture: a subsistence strategy that focuses on small-scale farming using a relatively simple technology ~agriculture: a subsistence strategy focusing on intensive farming, investing a great deal of time, ~carrying capacity: the number of people who can be sustained by the resources & environment in which they live ~settlement pattern: the way people distribute themselves in their environment, including where they ~reciprocity: principles of mutual gift giving ~redistribution: the gathering together & then reallocation of food & resources to ensure everyone’s survival ~leveling mechanisms: cultural practices designed to equalize access to food, resources, & social prestige through a community so that no one individual can amass greater wealth or prestige than other people ~nomads: people who do not have permanent homes but travel to sources of food as the food becomes seasonably available ~transhumance: the practice among pastoralists of moving to new pastureland on a seasonal basis ~sedentary communities: settlement pattern involving long-term, permanent settlements ~slash-and-burn (swidden) cultivation: a farming technique for preparing new fields by cutting down [ch.7: Economic Systems] ~intensive agriculture: application of technology & intensive labor to farming, such as the plow & irrigation ~industrial agriculture: application of industrial technology & chemicals to farming in order to increase productivity ~consumption: the use of subsistence resources, including outcomes of production ~economic system: cultural methods of allocating natural resources, the means of exploiting the resources through technology, the organization of work, & the production, distribution, consumption, & ~production: system of extracting resources & utilizing labor & technology in order to obtain food, goods & services ~specialization of labor: system of allocating work in which different people perform different tasks ~generalized reciprocity: the exchange of goods & services w/o keeping track of their exact value, but
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anthro2 - Key*=additional ~=vocab CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY...

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