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ch.31 - Ch 31"The War to End War WORLD WAR I ERA The...

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Ch. 31 “The War to End War” WORLD WAR I ERA The Sinking of the Falaba , March 1915 Source: www.andrews.esc18.net Who: British passenger steamer and German U-boat Who: British Naval Zone What: A British passenger steamer, the Falaba, was sunk by a German submarine on March 28. American citizen Leon C. Thrasher drowned. Sig.: The first American casualty from the German practice of sinking merchant ships in European waters. Begins discussion of neutral rights with Germany. The Attack on the Gulflight , May 1, 1915 Who: American steamer and German U-boat Where: European war zone What: German U-boats targeted the Gulflight , claiming to not see its neutral markings. The attack killed three crewmembers, two of those Americans. The ship was heavily damaged but survived. Sig.: The attack served as a precursor to the madness that was soon to erupt. Source: www.lib.byu.edu Wilson’s Fourteen Points Address on January 9, 1918 Source: ( The American Pageant ) Who: Delivered to Congress What: Alluring promises to inspire Allies- (1) abolish secret treaties (2) freedom of the seas (3) removal of economic barriers (4) reduction of armament burdens (5) adjustment of colonial claims (--) independence to minority groups (14) League of Nations Sig: Aimed to secure political independence, territorial integrity of all countries; boosted morale of Allies; demoralized the enemy governments by holding out alluring promises to their dissatisfied minorities; (1) pleased liberals of all countries (2) appealed to Germans, and Americans who distrusted British (3) pleased Germany (4) pleased taxpayers (5) reassuring to anti-imperialists (14) would provide a system of collective security , in theory. Henry Cabot Lodge during Wilson’s term (circa 1919) Who: Republican senator; chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations What: Loathed Wilson; the feeling was mutual; strongly opposed Treaty of Versailles; created fourteen formal reservations to it, which reserved the rights of the U.S. under the Monroe Doctrine and the Constitution and otherwise sought to protect American sovereignty Sig: Presented Treaty with Lodge reservations; created such a division that the treaty was ultimately defeated. Signifies beginning of isolationism that runs all the way to 12-7-41. Source: ( The American Pageant ) Treaty of Versailles June 28, 1919 Who: Endorsed by Wilson, opposed by a great number of critics, such as isolationists, Hun-haters, liberals, "hyphenated" Americans What: Attempted to reconcile and weaken Germany, but too harsh and too weak to do either; controversial Article X morally bound the United States to aid any member victimized by external aggression Sig: Some historians believe this treaty is to blame for Hitler’s ascent and WWII (the U.S. did not sign it; Hitler used the harsh treaty to prove that the Germans were unfairly treated and should re-arm). Source: ( http://momo.essortment.com/versaillestrea_reif.htm ) Red scare 1919-1920
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