Who: Educated middleclass men and women in the US (editors, lawyers, teachers, doctors, judges)
What: The progressives were feeling pressured from giant corporations, immigrant hordes, and the labor unions. The
progressives had two objectives to accomplish. It was a goal to use state power to limit the trusts. They also wanted to
improve the lives of the normal middle class; thus, stopping the socialist threat. Progressive women fought for suffrage and
workplace reform. Other progressive planks included rooting out graft from politics, the direct election of senators, the
income tax, and reaching out to the poor.
Sig.: The progressives were a strong moving force among the American people. They achieved much reform for the
middleclass in particular. Some of their achievements include: the popular elections of senators, legislation power to regulate
corrupt businesses, and laws improving working conditions.
(See what the progressives accomplished at the end of these
Source: AP 667-672, 693; http://brt.uoregon.edu/cyberschool/history/ch20/progressivism.html
Source: AP 666; www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A08351526.html
Who: American writers and publishers who felt that society was evil
Where: United States, mostly in New York though.
= The Jungle
Ida Tarbell = exposed Standard Oil;
Lincoln Steffens = The Shame of the Cities
. The principal
cClure’s—note Lum’s M and Ms here.)
What: Theodore Roosevelt described them as "muckrakers". They were publishers, writers, and journalists exposing the
corruptions and evil in society. They experienced popularity amongst the people despite the president's condemnation. The
muckrakers exposed many insurance and stock market frauds and evils. They also wrote about social issues, such as child
labor and treating women as "white slaves".
Sig.: It exposed the wicked practices of many establishments. The muckrakers attempted to decrease social malpractice by
informing the public. It was a powerful media tool that led to legislation. (Meat Inspection Act of 1906, for example,
stemming in part from The Jungle
Who: The progressives
What: The progressives wanted to take back power from the farmers, workers, and government officials and put it back in
the hands of the people. Initiative is where voters can directly propose legislation themselves. City governments were
corrupted because politicians often took bribes from companies that did business with the city government. This way, they
wouldn't get taken advantage of by a corrupt boss-bought state legislature.
Significance: With the progressives being the majority and having considerable power, reform would be possible.
Source: AP 667; http://brt.uoregon.edu/cyberschool/history/ch20/progressivism.html