eeb exam 9 - UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of Arts and...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–16. Sign up to view the full content.

Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 8
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 10
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 12
Image of page 13

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 14
Image of page 15

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 16
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of Arts and Science April 2014 EXAMINATIONS EEB386H Avian Biology Duration — 2 hours Print Name Student Number Signature TURN OFF & PUT AWAY MOBILE DEVICES 8:. OTHER ELECTRONIC AND AUDIO EQUIPMENT NO AIDS ALLOWED This Exam consists of 18 questions worth a total of 100 marks. The exam is 2 hrs duration. Budget your time carefully. Pencil can be used for drawings. Return this exam booklet with your answers when you are finished. Attempt all questions. Answer in the spaces provided on these exam question pages. This page is blank Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- —— Attempt all questions. Provide your answers in the space provided. 1. For THREE of the following terms, provide a concise and precise definition. (6 marks) beak, lek, bird song, amniotic egg a) Term: b) Term: c) Term: 2. Pick any THREE of the following pairs of terms, and give 9_n_e key difference between them: (6 marks) - Polygyny and polyandry o altricial and precocial development 0 prokinesis and mandibular kinesis o seet call and mobbing alarm call b) EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 1 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- —~ 3. Indicate whether each of the following statements is TRUE or FALSE. (4 marks) a) Albatrosses, and most seabirds, have extended bi-parental care and a monogamous mating system. b) Female woodland songbirds choose males based on their territory resources rather than their elaborate courtship displays. c) In polyandrous mating systems, the females are usually larger, have brighter plumages, and are more aggressive than the males. d) Polygynous mating systems, with female—only parental care, is prevalent in tropical frugivores. 4. Complete the following sentences to make them correct. (4 marks) a) Adult female birds intake dietary calcium, but some can also mobilize calcium from the b) Calcium is transported in the blood stream to the site of eggshell synthesis which is in the c) The enzyme catalyzes the transport of calcium across the oviduct epithelium to the developing egg. d) Calcium in the eggshell will be mobilized later during incubation across the membrane and deposited in the embryo skeleton. EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 2 of 13 Print Name: ————————————————————————————————————————————————— ~— 5. This graph shows the temporal distribution of egg-laying and hatching of the Ontario subspecies of White~crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis capensis). Answer the following questions: (5 marks) 5 10 15 20 25 Days a) On the graph, label the egg-laying curve and the hatching curve (1 mark) b) What does the interval marked (a) on the graph represent? (1 mark) c) On the graph, indicate with a labelled arrow when food abundance in the sparrow’s breeding environment peaks. (1 mark) d) What calendar date (to nearest week) would you estimate for the peak egg-laying period? (1 mark) e) Under a global warming scenario in northern Ontario, which way does the food abundance peak shift temporally on the graph ?(1 mark) 6. John Krebs conducted an experiment on the function of song in territoriality in Great Tits (Parus major). Krebs removed resident territorial males, and then measured how quickly new males re— occupied the experimental area where loudpeakers broadcast Great Tit song. (4 marks) a) What was the prediction if Great Tit song functioned to defend territories? b) What were the control treatments? EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 3 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- -- 7. Below are three sonograms of crystallized song, subsong, and plastic song (in no particular order) from an individual White-crowned Sparrow at different developmental stages.(5 marks total) a) On the diagram, label each song correctly.(2 marks) b) For each of the following three experiments in which sparrow chicks were raised in isolation in the lab (isolate), indicate which of the three songs (above) would be closest to the song they would produce as an adult (i.e., at day 300). i. A hearing-intact isolate that was played adult White-crowned Sparrow songs from days 10-50, but deafened at day 100. ii. A hearing—intact isolate played adult White-crowned Sparrow song from days 10-50. iii. A hearing—intact isolate played adult songs of Song Sparrow and White—crowned Sparrow from days 10-50. EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 4 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- —— 8. Answer the following questions about this sonogram of a Common Chaffinch (Fringilla coe/ebs) song (2 marks) a) Circle and label representative examples of a syllable, and a phrase (1 mark) b) How many phrases does this song consist of? (1 mark) 9. The graph below plots the change through time of the mean beak size of the population of Medium Ground Finch (Geospizafortis) on Daphne Major island. The arrow indicates when a few individuals of G. magnirostris colonized the island. Episodes of severe drought on the island are indicated by a star. Answer the following questions: (4 marks total) P01 Beak Size a) Explain what happened to the food supply to cause the shift in population beak size in 1977. (2 marks) b) Why did population mean beak sizeof G. fortis decrease during the severe drought in 2004? (2 marks) EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 5 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- -— 10. Common Mergansers (Mergus merganser) and Mallards (Anas p/atyrhynchos) are waterbirds that overwinter on Lake Ontario. Compare the beak and tongue anatomy of these two species and explain how it relates to their different foraging behaviour and diet. Use diagrams if appropriate. (6 marks) EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 6 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- ~— 11. In his experiment on tail length and mating success in Long—tailed Widowbirds (Euplectes progne) in Africa, Malte Andersson made some males’ tail feathers shorter by cutting them and made other males’ tail feathers longer by gluing feather sections onto their tails. a) He also created a group in which he cutoff parts of the males’ tail feathers and then glued the sections back on to produce a tail of unchanged length. What was the purpose of this group? (2 marks) b) The results of Andersson’s experiment are shown below. The graph plots the average number of new nests (i standard error) for nine males in four different treatment groups after tail length manipulation. Groups with different letters above them are significantly different from one another mean number of active nests Shortened Uncut Cut & reglued Lengthaneti treatment What can you conclude from these results about the maintenance of male tail length in this species? (2 marks) 12. Answer the following questions about the mating system of the bowerbird group. (4 marks) a) What specific type of mating system do most of the bowerbirds exhibit? (1 mark) b) Describe the courtship structure built by a representative bowerbird (e.g., Satin Bowerbird) '1 mark) l c) Give two possible alternative explanations for the ultimate benefits that a female derives by choosing a particular bower (2 marks) EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 7 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- —- 13. Two eagle species live in California: Bald Eagles typically occur in coastal areas, and Golden Eagles typically occur further inland. a) Bald Eagles experienced egg shell thinning, beginning in the 19505. What is thought to have caused this phenomenon? (1 mark). b) Golden Eagles did not experience egg shell thinning during this period; why might this be? (be as specific as you can) (2 marks). 14. Answer the following questions on the phenomenon of brood parasitism (8 marks) a) Name an obligate brood parasite and its host (common names are fine). (2 marks) b) List three (3) parasite traits that help the success of its egg in a host nest.(3 marks) c) For ONE of the traits named above, explain how it helps the parasite’s reproductive success. (1 mark) d) Name a host defense trait. (1 mark) e) Why does evolution of host defense traits seem to evolve slower (more conservatively) than parasite tactics? (1 mark) EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 8 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- —- 15. List at least three reasons why island bird extinction rates have been dramatically higher than extinction rates for continental bird species historically. (3 marks) 16. The conservation group, Bird Life International, estimates that about 150 bird species went extinct in the last 500 years. How does this compare with background extinction rates estimated from the fossil record? Show calculations. (2 marks) EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 9 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- -- 17. Choose ONE of the following topics and write a short essay (Written answers must be in full sentences; point-form is not acceptable). (15 marks) a) Describe the annual migration pattern, and discuss the factors which influence the timing and route of migration, for a North American long—distance migratory shorebird. Use diagrams if appropriate. b) Modern birds lack teeth, but are extremely adept at acquiring and processing food nonetheless. Explain. EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 10 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- -- EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 11 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- -- 18. Choose ONE of the following topics and write a short essay (Written answers must be in full sentences; point-form is not acceptable). (15 marks) a) Descriae the decline of a bird species (or species) on an oceanic island after introduction of exotic mammals, and the subsequent conservation efforts to restore the island. Your answer can draw on several different case studies. b) Discuss the anatomy and physiology of bird song. Your essay can include the model of song development, and the role of the brain in song learning. EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 12 of 13 Print Name: ------------------------------------------------- -- END EEB 386 2014W Final Exam page 13 of 13 ...
View Full Document

  • Fall '15

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern