eeb386h-exam 19 - UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of Arts and...

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Unformatted text preview: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of Arts and Science August 2014 EXAMINATIONS EEB386H Avian Biology Duration — 2 hours Print Name Student Number Signature TURN OFF & PUT AWAY MOBILE DEVICES & OTHER ELECTRONIC AND AUDIO EQUIPMENT NO AIDS ALLOWED This Exam consists of 13 questions worth a total of 100 marks. The exam is 2 hrs duration. Budget your time carefully. Pencil can be used for drawings. Return this exam booklet with your answers when you are finished. Attempt all questions. Answer in the spaces provided on these exam question pages. This page is blank Print Name EEB 386H Avian Biology 2014s Final Exam There are 13 questions worth a total of 100 marks. Answer each question in the space provided. 1. The White—crowned Sparrow winters in the southern United States, and migrates north in spring to breed in the boreal forest region. List some of the reproductive consequences for a male sparrow that arrives late on the breeding grounds. (4 marks) 2. The Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans) and the Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) are approximately the same size. Both have very long wings. Each year, the swan undergoes a complete wing moult which lasts about 50 days. However the albatross can take two years to completely replace its wing feathers. Why do the two species have such different moult strategies? (4 marks) 3. Bird song can function in courtship and mating in at least three different ways. What are they? (3 marks) __________—___________—_.—__——————-————————————— EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 1 of 12 Print Name 4. On the chart below, label the key landmarks in the first year of life of a male White-crowned Sparrow, from egg to adult. (10 marks) On the top row, label the time periods in which the following key stages in song development occur: (i) period of song memorization, (ii) onset of HVC enlargement in the brain, (iii) onset of singing, and (iv) attainment of full adult song. On the bottom row, label the following life history stages: (i) hatch, (ii) post-breeding moult, (iii) southern migration, (iv) wintering period, (v) spring migration, and (vi) first arrival on breeding grounds as an adult. .Ian numanma Life history Egg"aving Feb Mar AprJ May stages 5. An American Robin sees a Coopers Hawk flying nearby. Answer the following questions: (6 marks) a) What type of alarm call does the Robin give? Describe the features that make it an effective call. b) What is the response of other woodland birds within hearing range of the Robin’s call? c) The Robin incurs some risk by giving the alarm call. From an evolutionary perspective why does this behaviour persist? EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 2 of 12 Print Name 6. Answer the following questions on mating systems. (8 marks) a. Distinguish between a resource-based polygyny mating system and a dominance—based polygyny mating system. b. in what sorts of habitats and ecological conditions would you expect to find the lek mating system? c. How do central-place leks and exploded leks differ? Name an example bird species for each of these mating systems. 7. For each of the following, give one reason why you would predict a monogamous mating system. Be specific in your answers. (6 marks) a) A songbird that breeds in temperate woodlands (e.g., American Robin). b) A large seabird that is long-lived (e.g., Wandering Albatross). c) An arctic breeding bird with altricial young, such as the Snow Bunting. _________________________.._—.___—__—————-——————-—-— EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 3 of 12 Print Name 8. Complete each of the following sentences with a one word or one phrase answer. (10 marks) a) Most male birds have no penis, but there are some that do. Name one of these. b) Adult female birds have one functional oviduct. Which one -— the left or the right? c) Name one of the three systems that empties into the cloaca. d) In what region of the female reproductive tract is yolk deposited in the developing egg? e) The eggs of altricial species such as American Robin contain about 20% yolk. What is a typical figure for the amount of yolk in the egg of a precocial species such as the Killdeer? f) In what region of the oviduct is the shell secreted? g) Name a source of calcium for adult female birds prior to egg laying. h) Name the respiratory membrane in the incubated egg. i) From what source does the avian embryo derive the calcium necessary for skeletal development? j) Name one function of the albumen. EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 4 of 12 Print Name 9. For an obligate brood parasite system, answer the following questions. (6 marks total) a) Name a brood parasite species and list two (2) traits that help it deceive a host into incubating its egg. (3 marks) b) For ONE of the traits you have identified above, explain how it helps the brood parasite’s reproductive success. (1 mark) c) Why is egg recognition a host defense? How can it lead to an evolutionary "arms race" between brood parasite and host? (2 marks) 10. The graph below plots the change through time of the mean beak size of the population of Medium Ground Finch (Geospizafortis) on Daphne Major Island. The arrow indicates when a few individuals of G. magnirostris colonized the island. Episodes of severe drought on the island are indicated by a star. Answer the following questions. (6 marks total) 1.0 P61 Beak Size *1 .5 —r‘ ‘-—i—‘ 1970 1980 1 990 2000 2010 a) Which component/s of beak size (length, width, depth) are most important for feeding efficiency in these two Geospiza species, and why? (2 marks) EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 5 of 12 Print Name b) Explain what happened to the food supply to cause the shift in G. fortis population beak size in 1977. (2 marks) c) Why did mean beak size of the G. fortis population decrease during the severe drought in 2004? (2 marks) 11. The figure below shows the distribution of Mya arenaria clams in mudflats, and the range of clam sizes eaten by three shorebird species (Red Knot, Oystercatcher, Curlew; From Ens et al, 2000). Answer the following questions. (6 marks) .—I—'K_ .4. ___L w 20 an an so an "730 Mya armada length (mm) a) What evidence is there for resource partitioning by the three species? (2 marks) b) What limits the minimum prey size eaten by Curlew? (2 marks) EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 6 of 12 Print Name c) Why do Red Knots exploit only clams that are smaller than about 20mm? (1 mark) d) Most shorebirds that probe for food have a specialized beak tip. What is it called and how does it function? (2 marks) EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 7 of 12 Print Name This page is blank EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 8 of 12 Print Name 12. Choose ONE ofthe following topics and write a short essay (Written answers must be in full sentences; point—form is not acceptable). (15 marks) a) Describe the annual migration pattern for a long—distance migratory shorebird, and discuss some of the anatomical and physiological adaptations for long-distance flight. Use diagrams if appropriate. or b) Modern birds lack teeth, but are extremely adept at acquiring and processing food. Discuss. EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 9 of 12 Print Name EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 10 of 12 Print Name 13. Choose ONE of the following topics and write a short essay (Written answers must be in full sentences; point-form is not acceptable). (15 marks) a) Describe the impact of introduced mammals on the birds of oceanic islands, and give specific examples of the subsequent conservation efforts to restore the avifauna of these islands. Your answer can draw on different case studies. b) Explain how birds learn their songs, and how they produce their songs. Your answer should include a discussion of the role of brain anatomy. EEB 386H 2014s Final Exam Page 11 of 12 Print Name END ______—_______—__—.____————————————————-——————————— EEB 386H 20145 Final Exam Page 12 of 12 ...
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