Transportmammals - Transport in Mammals 1989 Paper 2...

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Chemistry: The Molecular Science
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Chapter 13 / Exercise CP13.B
Chemistry: The Molecular Science
Moore/Stanitski
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Transport in Mammals1989 Paper 2 Question 66.(a)With reference to TWOnamed examples, compare and contrast an open circulatory system with a closed circulatory system in terms of their structural organizations, functional advantage(s) and disadvantage(s).(10 marks)(b)With reference to TWOnamed examples, discuss the advantages of a complete double circulatory system over a single circulatory system.(6 marks)(c)Discuss the role of plasma protein in the control of tissue fluid volume in a mammal.(4 marks)Ans1991 Paper 2 Question 66.Explain the mechanisms which maintain an efficient circulation of blood in the body of a mammal when at rest and during intense activity.(20 marks)Ans1992 Paper 2 Question 55.Compare the type of circulatory system found in a named insect with that found in a named mammal. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each type of system in relation to gas exchange and nutrient distribution within these organisms.(20 marks)Ans1993 Paper 1 Question 8
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Chemistry: The Molecular Science
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Chapter 13 / Exercise CP13.B
Chemistry: The Molecular Science
Moore/Stanitski
Expert Verified
8.(a)In an experiment performed on a dog, the relationship between cardiac output and blood volume of the left ventricle just before contraction started was studied. This relationship was studied by artificially changing the total blood volume of the animal, thus altering the ventricular volume. The experiment was then repeated with simultaneous electrical stimulation of nerve A which innervates the heartThe results are shown in the graph below :(i)What conclusions can be drawn from this experiment ?(2 marks)(ii)(1)Suggest a physiological state of the animal that would give a cardiac response similar to that produced by stimulation of nerve A.(1 mark)(2)What is the functional significance of such a response ?(1 mark)(iii)Injection of chemical X into the circulation of the animal would give a response similar to that produced by electrical stimulation of nerve A.(1)Suggest what chemical X is.( 1 mark)(2)What is the possible functional relationship between stimulation of nerve .
A and chemical X on the functioning of the heart (2 marks)(b)In another experiment, the heart rate of the dog under each of the following conditions was monitored :(1)in the resting state (as the control),(2)electrical stimulation of nerve A which innervates the heart, and(3)electrical stimulation of nerve B which also innervates the heart.The results are as follows :Resting stateNerve A stimulationNerve B stimulationHeart rate (beats/min)130180100(i)State the effects of the above nerve stimulations on heart rate. What can you deduce about the nature of innervations to the heart ?(2 marks)(ii)Outline the mechanism which affects the heart rate under each of the following conditions:(1)in the resting state(2)when nerve A is stimulated(3)when nerve B is stimulated(4 marks)(iii)Which part of the nervous system is responsible for regulating the activities of nerves A and B ?(1 mark)(c)Based on the results of all the above experiments, summarise your understanding on the mechanism controlling cardiac function.(3 marks)(d)How would the heart rate of the dog at the resting state compare with that of man ? Account for such a difference.

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