10/26/15 1 Learning: The Role of Experience 2 Learning ! Learning: a relatively enduring change in an organism ’ s behavior or capabilities ! Four basic learning processes: ! Habituation ! Classical conditioning ! Operant conditioning ! Observational learning 3 Learning ! Behaviorism: ! Assumes that there are laws of learning that apply to virtually all organisms ! Learning is explained in terms of directly observable events
10/26/15 2 4 Adapting to the Environment ! Personal adaptation: focuses on how an organism ’ s behavior changes in response to environmental stimuli ! Habituation: a decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist § Won the Nobel Prize for his work on digestion (1904). § Remembered for his experiments on basic learning process. Ivan Pavlov (center) developed the principles of classical conditioning. 6 Pavlov ’ s Classic Experiment: Salivating Dogs (1927)
10/26/15 3 Pavlov ’ s Classic Experiment: Salivating Dogs (1927) Pavlov ’ s Classic Experiment: Salivating Dogs (1927) Pavlov ’ s Classic Experiment: Salivating Dogs (1927)
10/26/15 4 10 Classical Conditioning ! Classical conditioning: a process in which an organism learns to associate two stimuli 11 Classical Conditioning ! Acquisition: the period during which a response is being learned ! Neutral stimulus: a stimulus that does not naturally elicit a response in an organism 12 Classical Conditioning ! Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): elicits an innate response (the UCR) without prior learning ! Unconditioned response (UCR): an innate response that is elicited by a stimulus (the UCS) without prior learning
10/26/15 5 13 Classical Conditioning ! Conditioned stimulus (CS): a stimulus that, through association with a UCS, comes to elicit a conditioned response similar to the original UCR ! Conditioned response (CR): a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus 14 Classical Conditioning 15 Classical Conditioning ! Forward short-delay pairing ! Forward trace pairing ! Simultaneous pairing ! Backward pairing
10/26/15 6 16 Classical Conditioning ! Classical conditioning is strongest when: ! There are repeated CS-UCS pairings ! The UCS is more intense ! The sequence involves forward pairing ! The time interval between the CS and UCS is short 17 Classical Conditioning ! Extinction: the CS is presented repeatedly in the absence of the UCS, causing the CR to weaken and eventually disappear ! Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of a previously extinguished CR after a rest period and without new learning trials 18 Classical Conditioning ! Stimulus generalization: stimuli similar to the initial CS elicit a CR ! Discrimination: a CR occurs in the presence of one stimulus but not others
10/26/15 7 19 Classical Conditioning ! Higher-order conditioning: occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS 20 Classical Conditioning 21 Classical Conditioning !
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