Lecture11 - Nationalism Geopolitics in Europe Russia...

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Nationalism & Geopolitics in Europe & Russia Cultural Geography: Week 11 Post-Cold War Geopolitical Theory Francis Fukuyama: • The End of History and the Last Man (1992) Samuel Huntington: • Clash of Civilizations? (1993) Huntington: Clash of Civilizations (1993) 1. Global politics is both multi-polar and multi-civilizational 2. A world order is emerging that is civilization based 3. As the balance of power among civilizations shifts, the relative influence of the West is declining 4. The West is increasingly coming into conflict with other civilizations, epecially the Islamic world and China. 5. If the West is to survive, America must reaffirm its Western-identity and unite with other Westerners in the face of challenges from other civilizations. Evidence to Support Huntington • Hindu-Muslim conflict India-Pakistan: 1947-present • Chinese-Muslim conflict in Xinjiang: 1949-present • Chinese-Buddhist conflict in Tibet: 1950-present • Arab-African conflict in Sudan: 1955-present • Hindu-Buddhist violence in Sri Lanka: 1956-present • Muslim-Christian conflict in Nigeria: 1970-2004 • Orthodox-Muslim conflict in Afghanistan: 1979-1989 • Ethnic violence in Yugoslavia: 1991-present • Arab-African conflict in Darfur, Sudan: 2003-present • Buddhist-Muslim conflict in Thailand: 2003-present • Western-Muslim conflict: 1983-present Critique of Huntington 1. The evidence in support of Huntington is anecdotal 2. Definition of “civilization”/ diversity within civilizations 3. Huntington underestimates modernity and secularism 4. More conflict within civilizations than between civilizations
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Lecture11 - Nationalism Geopolitics in Europe Russia...

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