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NATS 1860- MIDTERM #4 - NATS 1860 MIDTERM#4 Einstein and...

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NATS 1860 MIDTERM #4 Einstein and Relativity o Maxwell’s equation on electromagnetism suggested that light was an electromagnetic wave (which is carried by a medium; the ether) The Ether o Found everywhere and absolute frame of reference (can measure the speed of light with respect to it) o Measurements of the speed of light ought to be different for measuring decives traveling with respect to the ether (ex. measure speed of wave on shore vs. boat) Speed of Light o Michalson- Morley experiment → believed the direction of the inferometer should affect the interference pattern of two beams of light due to ‘ ether wind’ → results = negative, no change in pattern o Result: The speed of light is fixed for all frames of reference → b/c there is no absolute frame of reference to measure the speed of light (= contrary to Newtonian mechanics) Albert Einstein o Theorectical explanation of… ….the photoelectric effect: When light photons hit ‘sodium metal’ they eject electrons from the surface … and Brownian motion: Particle +water molecule = random walk o Speed is distance divided by time taken (S= d/t) → thus, measures of distance and time are affected by how fast you are traveling with respect to the speed of light Photo clock and time dilation – a clock moving at a constant speed relative to another clock runs relatively slower: 1. the path of a photon traveling between two mirrors in motion is long than the path of a photon between two mirrors at rest 2. Speed is distance traveled over time, and is constant 3. Therefore if distance is increased, time must increase to keep speed of light constant = the relative speed of clocks at different speeds are different Consequences of Special Relativity 1. Nothing can travel faster than the speed of light 2. The speed of light is the same in all frames
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3. Time dilation- clocks run slower as they approach the speed of light ( which accounts for #1 & #2) 4. Sime time and are related, we have ‘spacetime’ (4 dimensions) Experimental Evidence of Time Dilation (Muon Experiement) o Q: Out of a million Muon Particles at 10km , how many will reach the Earth? o A: Muons are subatomic particles that have a short lifespan. They travel close to the speed of light (.98c). From our perspective their time is noticeably slower, and more of them will survive the trip to earth in their time Special Relativity was used to derive the equation: E=mc2 o In Special Relativity, space and time were interwoven. o E=mc2→ established the equivalence of mass and energy. * 1919 Arthur Stanley Eddington experimentally verifies that light bends due to the gravitation of the sun during an eclipse. * Newton’s action-at-a-distance is replaced by objects moving in curved spacetime Challenger Shuttle Disaster o January 28 th 1986- broke apart after 73 seconds o Cause; the failure of the O-rings on the solid rocket booster, which allowed hot burning gas to leak and ignite the external fuel tank Pressure to Launch o NASA needed to justify its budget requests o
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