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NATS 1860 SCIENCE: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE MIDTERM #2 Science and Technology for Health and Development 8 UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) * Global Issues, UN is attempting to solve with realistic solutions 1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2) Achieve universal primary education 3) Promote gender equality and empower women 4) Reduce child mortality 5) Improve maternal health 6) Combat HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases 7) Ensure environmental sustainability 8) Develop a global partnership for development Science and Tech Task Force - Help achieve MDGs - Determine how science/tech can be enhanced and applied to all countries 4 Focus Areas: 1. Managing innovation in rapidly globalizing world 2. Redefining infrastructure as foundation for innovation 3. Building human capabilities through education 4. Enhancing entrepreneurship Top 10 Biotechnologies to achieve MDGs 1) Molecular diagnostics 2) Recombinant vaccines 3) Vaccine and drug delivery 4) Bioremediation 5) Sequencing pathogen genomes 6) Female-controlled protection against STDs 7) Bioinformatics 8) Nutritionally enriched genetically modified crops 9) Recombinant therapeutic proteins 10) Combinatorial chemistry Microbiology Viruses - Infectious particles (20nm diameter) - Nucleuic acid (DNA/RNA) encased in a protein coat
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Viral… Genome (Various forms, according to type of virus) - Double-stranded DNA or Single-Standed DNA - Double-stranded RNA or Single-stranded RNA - Usually Single molecule (linear or circular)→ Size varies ( fragments→ 4 genes to 100) - Enclosed in capsid (protein shell) Envelopes - Possessed by some viruses (some have extra envelope around coat) - Cloak viral capsid (Virus blinds to host cell) - Derived from membranes of host cell - Help virus infect host - Contain some viral glycoproteins Obligate intracellular parasites - reproduce only within a host cell - Isolated virus can do nothing but infect an appropriate host - Lack the enzymes for metabolism of ribosomes for protein synthesis - Merely a packaged set of genes in transit from one host to cell another Specificity of Viral infection (Small b/c only use host cell→ only bring ‘virul’ code) - Host range: limited types of cells virus infects and parasitizes - Specific fit between proteins on outside of virus and receptor molecule - Some viruses (ex. Rabies virus) infect many species but not all. - Most viruses attack on specific issues, ex. Cold→ only affect cells lining the upper respiratory tract. General viral course of action (Infection) - Viral genome enters host cell - Virus takes over hosts ‘machinery’ (general mechanism cell uses to make proteins) for DNA replication and Protein synthesis - New viral particles self-assemble (many copies) and exit cell Viral Latency - Some viruses can hide in host for a while - Incorporate viral genome into host genome (provirus form of virus) - As long as host cells dividing normally, virus (viral genome) within is dividing with it → individual may not be aware of virus - Environmental stress can induce virus to enter lytic phase (reproduce and kill cell) Retroviruses -
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