NATS 1860- MIDTERM #1

NATS 1860- MIDTERM #1 - NATS 1860 SCIENCE: PAST, PRESENT...

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NATS 1860 SCIENCE: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE MIDTERM #1 Biology and the Living World Prokaryotes Single-celled organisms lacking nucleus 2 domains → 1. Eubacteria 2. Archae Eukaryotes More complex single-celled organisms with nucleus 1 domain → Eukarya (eucarya) Six Kingdoms 1. Archae 2. Eubacteria 3. Protista 4. Fungi 5. Plantae 6. Animilia 1. Archae Prokaryotic kingom Some characteristics closer to eukaryotes than to bacteria (ex. Process of copying DNA and make proteins) Grow in extreme conditions 2. Eubacteria Prokaryotic kingdom Bacteria and blue-green algae Diverse habitats/food/energy sorces (auto,hetero,chemo,photo) Harmless to humans, may/may not need oxygen 3. Protista (Protists) Eukaryotes that are NOT fungi/plants/animals Unicellular (mostly) Autotrophs/Heterotrophs Similar to other kingdoms; Protozoa → animal-like (amoeba), Algae→ (plant like), fungus-like ex. Slime moulds 4. Fungi Multicellular → except Yeast = unicellular Heterotrophs Parasitic or free-living 5. Plantae Multicellular Photosynthetic: Phototrophs → use light energy, Autotrophs- use CO2
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6. Animalia Multi-cellular Chemoheteroptrophs Digest food internally Taxonomy Heirarchical classification system of life: ‘TAXA’ (Human Example) - Kingdom (Animila) - Phylum (Chordata) - Class (Mammalia) - Order (Primita) - Family (Hominidae) - Genuis (Homo) - Species (Sapiens) *** ‘ K ing P hilip C ame O ver F or G reat S ushi’*** 5 Properties of Life 1. Cellular Organization → At least one cell organized 2. Metabolisim → Use energy 3. Homeostasis → Maintain stable internal conditions 4. Growth and Reproduction 5. Heredity → genetic system based on DNA Organization of Life → **Levels of increasing complexity** Cellular = Atoms molecue macromolecule organelle cell Organismal= Tissue Organ organ system organism Population= Population Species community ecosystem The Scientific Process Deductive Reasoning Use known facts/principles to explain particular observations ( to conclude a solution) Inductive Reasoning Build principles based solely on observation and generate hypothesis Scientific Investigation 1. Observation 2. hypothesis 3. prediction (not always needed) 4. testing 5. controls 6. conclusion
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1. Observation Leads to some sort of question ex. Observe- O-zone layer thinning, Q why is it thinning? 2. Hypothesis Educated guess ex. CFC’s causing depletion of O-zone 3. Predictions what one would expect if hypothesis was correct 4. Testing Experiment to determine if hypothesis is correct or rely on evidence b/c absolute ‘proof’ is difficult ex. Exp. To determine CFCs reaction with ozone 5. Controls Help determine if other factors may account for observation, Include ALL POSSIBLE variables ex. Tiem of day, dosage, other meds. Run parallel experiments- ex. O-zone layer simulation in the presence and absence of CFC’s and compare results.
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NATS 1860- MIDTERM #1 - NATS 1860 SCIENCE: PAST, PRESENT...

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