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Chap_1A_Atomic___Lewis_structures__Resonance

Chap_1A_Atomic___Lewis_structures__Resonance - Atomic...

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Atomic Structure •Atoms: protons, neutrons, and electrons. •The number of protons determines the identity of the element. •PeriodicTable: each successive element increases atomic number by 1 (electron). •Some atoms of the same element have a different number of neutrons. These are called isotopes. •Example: 12 C, 13 C, and 14 C
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Electronic Structure •Electrons: outside the nucleus, in orbitals. •Electrons have wave properties. •Electron density is the probability of finding the electron in a particular part of an orbital. •Orbitals are grouped into “shells,” at different distances from the nucleus.
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Atomic Electronic Configurations •Aufbau principle: Place electrons in lowest energy orbital first. •Pauli exclusion principle: A maximum of two electrons of opposite spin occupy an atomic orbital, which are spin paired. •Hund’s rule: Equal energy orbitals are half- filled, spins parallel, then filled. •Only valence electrons of each atom are energetically accessible for chemical bonds.
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