LIFE 102 Exam one - LIFE 102(003 ATTRIBUTES OF LIVING...

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LIFE 102 (003): ATTRIBUTES OF LIVING SYSTEMS STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 WHAT ARE GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF THE FOLLOWING: Atom pH Neutron Buffer Proton Hydroxyl group Electron Carbonyl group Element Aldehyde Atomic number Ketone Atomic weight Molecular Mass/Molar Mass Solute Daltons Solvent Mass number Carboxyl group Peptide bond Isotope Amino group Radioactive isotope Valence shell Hydrophobic interactions Sulfhydryl group Covalent bond Phosphate group Non-polar covalent bond Carbohydrate Polar covalent bond Disaccharide Peptide bond Polysaccharide Ionic bond Glycosidic linkage Ion Steroid Hydrogen bond Acid & Base CHAPTER 1 1. What are the levels of biological organization? 2. What is ‘science’? What are its basic tenets? What questions can it NOT answer? 3. What does the term ‘emergent properties’ mean?
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CHAPTER 2 4. How do atoms fill their valence shell? What happens when an atom loses or gains an electron? 5. 96% of living matter is composed of which elements? 6. What are trace elements? What are examples of essential elements? 7. How can you distinguish one element from another (why is a carbon atom different from a nitrogen atom)? 8. What are isotopes? How do isotopes of carbon differ from each other? 9. What is a covalent bond? What is the difference between polar & non-polar covalent bonds? 10. How do two atoms share electrons? What effect does this have on the valence shell? 11. How many electrons does it take to fill the valence shells of C, H, O and N? 12. Why are hydrogen bonds important for biological molecules? Can you give an example of biological molecules that contain hydrogen bonds? (there are many!) 13. What is the law of conservation of mass? Is C6H12O6 ® 6CO2 + 6H2O an example of mass conservation? Why? 14. What does it mean when a reaction is ‘reversible’? 15. What is chemical equilibrium? What happens to the concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium? CHAPTER 3 16. Why is water a polar molecule? What type of bonds do water molecules form with each other? How many of these bonds can each water molecule potentially form? 17. What are 4 major properties of water? Define cohesion, surface tension, high specific heat. Why is the density of ice less than liquid water? 18. What role do hydrogen bonds play in each of the properties of water? 19. Why are some compounds hydrophilic while other compounds are hydrophobic? How do hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds interact with water? 20. Water is a good solvent. Why? What types of compounds dissolve in water? 21. What is concentration? What is the solute? What is the solvent? 22. What is acidity? What pH range does an acidic, basic, or neutral solution have? What does pH have to do with H+ (proton) concentration? 23. What is the formula used to calculate pH? What is the pH of pure water? What is the [H+] in pure water?
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  • Fall '07
  • Fields
  • Covalent bond Phosphate group

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