History 1003- Test 2 Notes- Thursday, 2/21/081789- French Revolution begins.18thCentury will set the stage for the French Revolution and everything it changes.Myths about the 18thCentury: 1.)Revolution 2.) The Enlightenment 3.) The Industrial RevolutionRealities of the 18thCentury: 1.) Demography and weather- Mini Ice Age c.1300-1850. A time of lower temperatures. An avg. day was 1-2 degrees below normal, and a bad day was 6-10 degrees F lower. This means the 1stfreeze comes earlier, and that means the end of crops for the season. Below a certain level of nutrition, conception for women became difficult. Low Nutrition=Low Birth Rate. Also, in cold weather, people die more easily, esp. the young and the old1709- Very cold, bad year.After about 1740- Warm enough for population to grow. An improvement in the weather=lower death rate and a higher birth rate.Between 1740 & 1800- Population of Europe nearly doubles. (What happens is shorter periods of cold weather, bigger population, but low crop yield = disaster.)1775, 1788 – Bad years. 1788= Year before the start of the French Revolution.2.) War
The 5 Great Powers (France, Russia, Great Britain, Austria, Prussia) seemed to be at war constantly. 1700-1713/14: War of Spanish Succession1720’s: War of Polish Succession1740-1748: Wars of Austrian Succession1756-1763: Seven Years War1778: War of American IndependenceEffects of war: It costs money and lives, and places tremendous strain on people.3.) Strain- the effects of the strains of war.Rulers who were either choosing or being forced to go to war (by attack) find it exceedingly difficult to conduct these wars because of the strain it caused. Tried new ways to deal with the strains of war fare : One way: To find new sources of revenue- by taxing the nobles and the church (those privileged who had not been paying direct tax were now ordered to pay it) Difficult to enforce because the nobility was not willing to comply.<A combination of these realities culminates in a political revolution> 1713-Hanoverian- took over the throne in England.George I- when he died, was succeeded by his second son, GeorgeII, who had little interested. George II’s son, George III takes over, and is King for 60 years. <during this period, parliament gains power>
George III- feuded with Parliament. One reason American colonists wanted to break from England is because George III and Parliament could not handle the government.