AEM220_204ToPost - AEM220, Introduction to Business...

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Unformatted text preview: AEM220, Introduction to Business Management. Monday 2/4 The Hawthorne effect Theories of motivation Motivation (I) Abraham Maslow and the hierarchy of needs Frederick Herzberg and motivating factors Theories X, Y and Z Expectancy Theory Equity Theory Scientific Management and the Hawthorne Studies Time motion studies Belonging Industrial engineering Empowerment Piecework payrates Caring Motivation The reason for an action, that which gives purpose and direction to behavior; Commitment A positive attitude to the organization; Engagement A positive attitude to the job. Studies of Motivation Douglas McGregor, William Ouchi and Theories X, Y and Z; Abraham Maslow and the hierarchy of needs; Frederick Herzberg and motivating factors; Victor Vroom and expectancy theory; J.Stacy Adams and Equity Theory. X, Y and Z Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Herzberg's Two Factor Theory Comparing Maslow and Herzberg Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom Expectancy The belief that effort will lead to good performance The belief that good performance will be rewarded The rewards offered are ones the individual in question really wants Instrumentality Valence Effort = E x I x V If either expectancy, instrumentality, or valence are low, effort will be low Expectancy Theory 1) Determine Rewards Valued 1) Determine Standards 1) Ensure Standards Attainable 1) Tie Rewards To Performance 1) Are Rewards Considered Adequate? Equity Theory Equity theory suggests that individuals evaluate the ratio of their inputs to outcomes for a given job in relation to other, referent employees. (1) perceived inequity creates tension in the individual (2) the amount of tension is proportional to the magnitude of the perceived inequity (3) the tension created in the individual will motivate him or her to reduce it (4) the strength of the motivation to reduce inequity is proportional to the perceived inequity Equity theory suggests that overrewarded individuals might be motivated to increase their performance and underrewarded individuals to decrease their performance in an effort to restore equity. Takeaways Management attention and consideration is a significant source of employee motivation and satisfaction; Based on psychology and organizational research, it is possible to take actions that increase employee motivation and satisfaction; ...
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