Unformatted text preview: BIODIVERSITY & SYSTEMATICS SYSTEMATICS Study of organism kinds, diversity & the relationships among them TAXONOMY PURPOSE & IMPORTANCE SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION ARTIFICIAL SYSTEMS e.g., flower color; number of floral parts; shrubs, trees, vines, etc. used in horticulture catalogs & some plant identification guides NATURAL SYSTEM (phylogenetic system) Hierarchical categories of classification
SPECIES = most fundamental level GENUS (genera, pl.) = group of closely related species FAMILY ORDER CLASS PHYLUM (phyla, pl.) KINGDOM DOMAIN Taxonomic rules: governed by INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE each category has validly published, Latin description "type specimen" is designated, described & housed in a herbarium BIODIVERSITY
3 DOMAINS 5 (6) KINGDOMS 3 domains of life
(PROKARYOTES) 1) Bacteria 2) Archaea 1) Eukarya Nuclear envelope, organelles, & cytoskeleton More than 1, linear chromosome Plantae Protista Fungi Animalia Domain Eukarya: Kingdom ANIMALIA Diagnostic characters multicellular cell walls, plastids & photosynthetic pigments absent primarily ingestive nutrition, but may be absorptive complex sensory & neuromotor systems reproduction predominantly sexual Kingdom FUNGI (Myceteae) [mushrooms, rusts & smuts, mildews, molds] Domain Eukarya: Diagnostic characters heterotrophs flagellated cells absent absorptive nutrition secrete enzymes then absorb organic molecules of predigested "food" cell walls of chitin mitotic process differs from that of either plant or animals reproduce asexually & sexually unique life cycles Kingdom PROTISTA: Domain Eukarya: Diagnostic characters Unnatural assemblage of heterotrophic & autotrophic organisms grouped primarily by exclusion lack distinguishing features of plants, animals &/or fungi Kingdom PLANTAE: Domain Eukarya: Diagnostic characters Multicellular Cellulose cell walls Photosynthetic chloroplasts w/ thylakoid organization Mitosis involves phragmoplast Whiplash flagellae inserted subapically & associated with uniquely organized microtubular "root" Glycolate oxidase as photorespiratory enzyme Life cycle = heteromorphic alternation of generations ...
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