A&P Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 The Spinal Cord &...

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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 1 Chapter 13 Lecture Outline Dr. Navin Maswood
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 2 INTRODUCTION The spinal cord and spinal nerves mediate reactions to The spinal cord has several functions. It processes reflexes. It is the site for integration of EPSPs and IPSPs that arise locally or are triggered by nerve impulses from the periphery and brain. It is a conduction pathway for sensory and motor nerve impulses. The size of the vertebral canal varies in different regions of the vertebral column and affects spinal cord injuries.
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 3 Spinal Cord Anatomy The spinal cord is protected by connective tissue coverings, the meninges , the vertebra, and a cushion of cerebrospinal fluid . The vertebral column provides a bony covering of the spinal cord (Figure 13.1c). The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain (Figures 13.1a, 14.4a). The outermost layer is the dura mater . The middle layer is the arachnoid. The innermost layer is the pia mater Denticulate ligaments are thickenings of the pia mater that suspend the spinal cord in the middle of its dural sheath. Inflammation of the meninges is known as meningitis Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space is called a spinal tap ( lumbar puncture ). This procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics, contrast media, anesthetics, and chemotherapeutic drugs. .
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 4 Spinal Cord Protection By the vertebral column, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and vertebral ligaments.
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 5 Structures Covering the Spinal Cord Vertebral Column- spinal cord is located within the vertebral cavity of the vertebral column Epidural space filled with fat Dura mater dense irregular CT tube Subdural space filled with interstitial fluid Arachnoid mater = spider web of collagen fibers Subarachnoid space = CSF Pia mater thin transparent CT layer that adhers to the surface of the spinal cord & brain
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 6 External Anatomy of the Spinal Cord The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra in an adult (Figure 13.2). It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements that serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. Cervical enlargement upper limbs Lumbar enlargement lower limbs In adult ends at L2 In newborn ends at L4 The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris , from which arise the filum terminale ( thread-like extension of pia mater, stabilizes spinal cord in canal) and cauda equina (dorsal & ventral roots of lowest spinal nerves).
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A&P Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 The Spinal Cord &...

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