A&P Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 The Autonomic Nervous...

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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 1 Chapter 15 The Autonomic Nervous System Lecture Outline Dr. Navin Maswood
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 2 INTRODUCTION The autonomic nervous system ( ANS ) operates via reflex arcs. Operation of the ANS to maintain homeostasis, however, depends on a continual flow of sensory afferent input, from receptors in organs, and efferent motor output to the same effector organs. Structurally, the ANS includes autonomic sensory neurons, integrating centers in the CNS, and autonomic motor neurons. Functionally, the ANS usually operates without conscious control. The ANS is regulated by the hypothalamus and brain stem.
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 3 The Autonomic Nervous System Regulate activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands Structures involved general visceral afferent neurons general visceral efferent neurons integration center within the brain Receives input from limbic system and other regions of the cerebrum
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 4 AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS The autonomic nervous system contains both autonomic sensory and motor neurons. Autonomic sensory neurons are associated with interoceptors. Autonomic sensory input is not consciously perceived. The ANS also receives sensory input from somatic senses and special sensory neurons. The autonomic motor neurons regulate visceral activities by either increasing (exciting) or decreasing (inhibiting) ongoing activities of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands. Most autonomic responses can not be consciously altered or suppressed.
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 5 SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS The somatic nervous system contains both sensory and motor neurons. The somatic sensory neurons receive input from receptors of the special and somatic senses. These sensations are consciously perceived. Somatic motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle to produce conscious, voluntary movements. The effect of a motor neuron is always excitation.
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 6 SOMATIC vs AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS All somatic motor pathways consist of a single motor neuron Autonomic motor pathways consists of two motor neurons in series The first autonomic neuron motor has its cell body in the CNS and its myelinated axon extends to an autonomic ganglion. It may extend to the adrenal medullae rather than an autonomic ganglion The second autonomic motor neuron has its cell body in an autonomic ganglion; its nonmyelinated axon extends to an effector.
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 7 Somatic versus Autonomic NS
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 8 Basic Anatomy of ANS Preganglionic neuron cell body in brain or spinal cord axon is myelinated type B fiber that extends to autonomic ganglion Postganglionic neuron cell body lies outside the CNS in an autonomic ganglion axon is unmyelinated type C fiber that terminates in a visceral effector
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 9 Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic NS
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A&P Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 The Autonomic Nervous...

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