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Roots of AC

Roots of AC - Roots of American Constitutionalism Dual...

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Unformatted text preview: Roots of American Constitutionalism Dual Perspectives on Government and Freedom Individualist Distrust of government Focus on individual Protect freedoms Faith in the market Fatalistic about inequality Adam Smith/Patrick Henry/Milton Friedman Communitarian Optimistic about government Focus on the community Freedom + fairness Market regulation Seeks more equality e.g., John Kenneth Galbraith; Sen. Edward Kennedy; former Sen. John Edwards Ancient Constitutionalism pre-500AD Classical Greek-Roman civilizations Belief in a higher law Would eventually influence "rule of law" Medieval Constitutionalism 500 1300AD Influence of religion on civil behavior Covenant btw. God and individual St. Thomas Aquinas 13th century Italian Renaissance 1300-1600AD Rebirth of classical influences art; architecture; learning Emphasis on humanism Leonardo Michelangelo Martin Luther Protestant Reformation European Enlightenment post--1600 Challenge to prevailing doctrines esp. that of monarchial rule and the established church How to discover what is "true" Revealed by faith ...or self-discovered ? Faith in science & technology Power of human reason Individual freedom & representative ideal Political Thought of the Enlightenment How to preserve order and protect freedom? Establishment of representative government John Locke -- Two Treatises of Civil Government (1690-92) Jean Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract (1762) Thomas Hobbes Leviathan (1651) Enlightenment Thinkers Compared Hobbes how to prevent anarchy and how to avoid Locke must protect property rights; support for parliamentary supremacy tyranny of a monarch? wary of democratic govt; pessimistic on human nature; search for powerful state? Rousseau most democratic of three; private property and absolute govt impeded humanity; search for the "general will" of the people Key Ideas of John Locke Natural rights Social Contract Popular sovereignty (reflected in parliamentary supremacy) Popular consent REVOLUTION! Colonial America 17th-18th centuries Civil war in England in early 1600s English Bill of Rights 1689 Growing conflict btw. England and colonies by 1760s ...
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