Unformatted text preview: The Founding: War and Consolidation A Gathering Storm 1760s problems with British monarchy & Parliament Key issues rights/law/freedom from GB Thomas Paine's Common Sense Declaration of Independence drafted by Jefferson and others; presented to Continental Congress in July; signed in August 1776 Key Elements from Locke Natural Rights Social Compact Popular sovereignty Consent Revolution!! Articles of Confederation finally signed by Continental Congress in late 1777 Problems:
Weak league of independent states No executive or judicial branches No power to regulate commerce/finance No power to raise revenue Required 3/4s of states to adopt laws Required all states to amend the Articles Constitutional Convention MaySept 1787
Virginia Plan Twohouse Congress; extensive power; representation based on population Strong consolidated union National executive & judiciary Opposed by smaller states New Jersey Plan State equality Connecticut Compromise July 1787 Twohouse Congress representation in House based on population; in Senate on state equality Method of selection House: popular vote from cong. districts Senate: senators chosen by states Key Features Extensive powers to Congress Divided Powers Articles I/II/III Federalized system Article IV Single executive; power?? --Art. II Independent judiciary; but not clear on power Art. III Amending process Art. V Article I, Sec. 8 No veto over states Ratification Fight Article VII AntiFederalists several arguments Federalist Papers essays to win approval Power versus Liberty # 51 Madison Hamilton/Madison/Jay weaknesses of A of C; strengths of Constitution Struggle to Ratify
Brief 2.3 and Table 2.1, p. 49 Delaware ratified in Dec. 1787 Others were close votes New Hampshire 9th June 1788 Immediate need to add Bill of Rights Mass., VA, NY, RI Challenges of a New Nation Doubters at home and abroad Immediate need for nat'l integration Search for legitimacy of national govt Emerging political factions Two Questions: Hamiltonians vs. Jeffersonians Federalists vs. Republicans National power vs. more limited govt. nature of Union; role of Supreme Court ...
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