Lecture4 Science short web

Lecture4 Science short web - The Science of Astronomy...

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The Science The Science of Astronomy of Astronomy
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Why does modern science trace its roots to the ancient Greeks? A. Greeks were the first to keep time. B. Greeks were the first to make models of nature. C. Greeks were the first to plant crops based on astronomical observations. D. Greeks were the first to build structures aligned with sky phenomena. Survey Question
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Why does modern science trace its roots to the ancient Greeks? A. Greeks were the first to keep time. B. Greeks were the first to make models of nature. C. Greeks were the first to plant crops based on astronomical observations. D. Greeks were the first to build structures aligned with sky phenomena. Greek geocentric model (c. 400 B.C.) Survey Question
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Greeks led us From Observations to Science Rose to power around 500 BC Three major innovations: 1. understand nature without relying on supernatural explanations; debate and challenge each other’s ideas 2. used mathematics to give precision to their ideas 3. explanation could not be right if it disagrees with the observed facts. Greeks created models of nature: a practice central to modern science. Model is a conceptual representation created to explain and predict observed phenomena.
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The underpinnings of the Greek model were laid by Plato and Aristotle. The Earth is the sphere that rests in the center of the (entire) Universe. Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Jupiter, Saturn revolve around Earth and all have their own spheres. The outermost sphere holds the stars ( heavens ). This sphere is perfect and unchangeable ! Circles is a perfect shape. All heavenly motions must be circular. The Greek Model for the Solar System and Stars
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Mercury : is visible infrequently and only just before the sunset or sunrise. Venus : often shines brightly in the early evening in the west, or before dawn in the east. Jupiter : when visible at night is the brightest object in the sky besides Venus and Moon. Mars : distinguishes itself by the reddish color. Saturn : is visible but many stars are as bright as Saturn so it is useful to know where to look. Planets visible to the naked eye Planetary alignment of 2002. Next such event in 2040.
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Earth’s rotation makes planet appear to rise in the east and set in the west. If you watch planets night after night you will notice that their motion against the background constellations is quite complex. Planets vary in speed and brightness. Planets usually move eastward, but occasionally reverse course, moving westward through the zodiac (for few months). WANDERING STARS (Greek word for wanderer is planete ) Planetary alignment of 2002. Next such event in 2040.
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Planetary motions posed an ancient mystery: what could make planets sometimes turn around and move backward if everything moves in circles around Earth?
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